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Tuesday, 8 August 2017

Oxford Dictionary Eleventh Edition Offline Full Version Pre-Activated

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Wednesday, 2 August 2017

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Monday, 17 July 2017

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Saturday, 15 July 2017

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Friday, 14 July 2017

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Wednesday, 12 July 2017

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Sunday, 9 July 2017

MANUAL FOR SYNOPSIS AND THESIS PREPARATION



MANUAL FOR SYNOPSIS AND
THESIS PREPARATION
PROF. DR. ABDUL GHAFOOR
INSTITUTE OF SOIL & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD
PAKISTAN
APPROVED AND PULISHED BY
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
2006
  
The use of some trade names in this book is no way an endorsement of these
products by the author
All rights reserved with the Univ. Agri., Faisalabad
1
Edition 2005
st
ISBN: 969-8237-07-0
Published by
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Printed by
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Price: Within Pakistan Rs. 100/-
ii
  
FOREWORD
st
The 21
century has brought challenges to improve the quality of science at a much faster
rate. Along with the improvements in teaching and research skills, the innovations and
explorations and scientific accomplishments are not possible without effective
communication. The research workers, particularly the graduate students at universities, need
help and guidelines for the preparation of uniform theses for the award of degrees. The
support and use of electronic and print media to express have not only facilitated to achieve
this goal but also have improved the scientific capabilities. It is my common observation that
several significant findings and innovations presented in the form of thesis could not find
their proper and esteemed place solely owing to ineffective or inappropriate presentation.
The document titled “MANUAL FOR SYNOPSIS AND THESIS PREPARATION” is
essentially a required and thoughtful effort from an experienced and renowned scientist. The
author has long experience to publish his scientific work in a variety of national and foreign
journals of global repute. Dr. Abdul Ghafoor has long experience of executing research
projects, writing technical reports, journal articles, books, supervising graduate theses, and
reviewing research materials for a number of scientific publications.
This text has been prepared keeping in view the requirements of students and researchers in
different degree awarding universities/institutes of Pakistan. The effort is quite in time as
there is a little reference material on writing graduate theses. I am optimistic that this book
will finally achieve the objectives of its publication. It will serve as a reference book for
graduate students, scientists, young teachers and researchers in this university as well as other
professional institutes in Pakistan. I would reckon this endeavour of author as worth
benefiting and emulating; however, nothing is ultimate, and there is always a room for
improvement.
PROF. DR. BASHIR AHMAD
VICE CHANCELLOR
iii
  
PREFACE
The purpose of this manual is to help graduate students (M.Sc. and Ph.D.) in completing a better
quality dissertation in a shorter time. Experiences in advancing doctoral candidates, in  serving on
dissertation committees, and in discussions with candidates as they have worked on their
dissertations clearly indicate a need for such a document. A systematic approach will assist
graduate candidates in managing the completion of their dissertation task. It also has advantages
for the advisers because the method can improve utilization of the scarce faculty resource.
The examples in the text reflect our background and, therefo re, do not attempt to relate to all
conditions that a student in different fields may face. One might have considerable discussion
about the truth or appropriateness of these examples or the format of the theses forms. This would
miss the essence. The examples and forms are the approach. Advisers may feel free to modify the
approach to reflect advising style.
The Ph.D. programmes are being offered in a number of disciplines at the UAF and several other
universities in Pakistan. The approach can be used  by graduate students. The response is assumed
to be very positive, and results achieved by candidates as they follow this approach may provide
ample evidence of its usefulness.
The “Manual for Synopsis and Thesis Preparation” is based on the three-decade experience of
dealing with graduate students, evaluating their assignments and theses, writing and evaluating
research articles and research proposals. During this course of time, a need for coaching the
students for theses writing was felt seriously. This text is an effort toward bridging the gap
between good research work and its effective presentation as graduate theses.
The students are rarely and seld om formally pruned for the modalities of theses writing. Even
experienced and learned professionals are sometimes unable to present and deliver an effective
and scientific document. The findings and innovations of a scientist are usually lost if these are not
documented and communicated to the community for whom these have been done.
This manual is prepared to assist and provide guidelines to the professionals and students to
prepare graduate dissertations. Particularly the beginners always need guidelines and they will get
a lot of help from this manual to prepare their theses. Suggestions for further improvement in th is
effort from readers would be highly appreciated.
The author appreciates the suggestions of the Review Committee comprising Dr. Tanwir Ali, Dr.
Javed Aziz and Dr. Zafar Iqbal. Specific suggestions and editing by Dr. Rahmatullah and proof
reading by Mr. Saifullah are gratefully acknowledged.
Prof. Dr. Abdul Ghafoor
iv
  
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title           Page
FOREWORD ……….………………………………………………………  iii
PREFACE ……………………………………………………………….  iv
INTRODUCTION  ………………………………………………………    1
POINTS FOR CONSIDERATION  …………………………………….    3
PART I:
PREPARATION OF SYNOPSIS
………………………..…    4
1. Title  ………………………………………………………………..    4
2. Abstract  ………………………………………………………………..    4
3. Need of the Project    ………………………………….…    4
4. Review of Literature  ………………………………………………    4
5. Materials and Methods  ………………………………………………    5
6. References   ……………….……………………………………..    5
PART II. PREPARATION OF
THESIS  …………………………………….    9
1. The Volume of Thesis  ………………………………………………    9
2. English Usage and Grammar  ……………………………………...    9
a. Punctuation  ………………………………………………………..    9
b. Hyphens, Spaces and Dashes  ……………………………………..  11
c.  Correct Use of Common Words   ……………………………  13
ABBREVIATIONS ……………………………………………………….  18
1. Titles  …………………………………………………………………  18
2. Lengthy Words  ………………………………………………………..  18
3. Commonly Used Abbreviations  ….………………………………….  18
4. Space and Time  ……………………………………………………….  18
THESIS AND ITS SUB-SECTIONS  …………………………………….  21
1.  The Preliminaries ………………………………………………..……….  21
2.  Main Body  ..…………………………………………………….…  21
3.  References ……………………………………………………….. 21
4.  Appendices ……………………………………………………….. 21
1. The Preliminaries ………………………………………………………..  21
a. Dedications  ………..……………………………………..  21
b. Acknowledgement   ..……………………………………………  22
c. Table of contents  ………………………………………………  22
d. List of tables and figures  …………………………………….  22
e. The handling of tables and figures  ……………………………  23
2. Main Body  ……………………………………………………….  23
a. Introduction  ……..……………………………………….  23
b. Review of literature   ……………………………………  24
c. Materials and methods   ……………………………………..  25
d. Results and discussion  ……………………………………  25
e. Discussion    ………………………………………………  26
f.  References   ………………………………………………  26
v
  
Format of Listing References  ……………………………………….  27
i. Journal Article   ……………………………………..  27
ii.   Article in serial publication  ……………………………  28
iii.  Article not in english with english abstract  …………  28
Title translated into english  …………………….
28
Title in original language  …………………….
28
iv.  Without english abstract (Translated title)  ………….  28
v.   Magazine article  ……………………………………..  28
vi.  Article with known errata follow-up    ………….  28
vii.  Books (including bulletins, reports, multivolume works, series)  28
viii. Book equivalent: Numbered bulletin, report or special
publication ………………………………………………  29
ix.  Conference, symposium, or workshop proceedings and
transactions ………………………………………………  29
x.  Chapter in a book  ……………………………………..  30
xi.  Chapter in a proceedings volume  ……………………  30
xii.  Dissertation or thesis   ……………………………..  30
xiii. Abstracts   ……………………………………………….  31
xiv. Software  and software documentation   …………..  31
xv. Miscellaneous  ………………………………………  31
Department publications, pamphlet, and other
brief publications  …………………………………
31
Encyclopedia article  …………………………………
32
Government documents  …………………………………
32
Patents and plant patents   ………………………
32
Performance and variety tests  ………………………
32
Printed publication with on-line edition and/or updates
32
Standards ………………………………………….
32
Supplements and special volumes ……………………..
32
On-line electronic sources  ………………………
33
Electronic version only  …………………………………
33
CD-ROM ……………………………………………
33
g. Appendices  ..……………………………………………..  33
3. Page Numbering  ………………………………………………………..  34
ON-LINE RESOURCS  ……………………………….………………………  35
Library Catalogs and Databases  …………………………….………  35
References ………………………………………………………… 35
Abstracts, Table of Contents  ………………………………………  35
Nomenclature: Plants, Pests, and Soils  …………………………….  36
Patents and Plant Variety Protection  …………………………….  36
Geography ……………………………………………………….. 36
Public
Nima
Gnps
Query Form  ………………………………………  36
Scientific Societies  ………………………………………………..  36
SI
and Unit Conversion  ……………………………………………….  37
vi
  
SPECIFICATIONS FOR M.SC, M.Phil. AND Ph.D. THESES  …………  38
1. General Information   ………………………………………………  38
2. Typing Directions   ………………………………………………  38
3. The Format of Thesis  ………………………………………………  39
4. Illustrations  ……………………………………………………….  39
5. Proof Reading  ……………………………………………………….  40
Sample Title Page  ……………………………………………………….  41
Sample Certificate Page  ………………………………………………  42
PROCEDURE FOR SUBMISSION OF THESIS  ……………………………  43
SUGGESTED READINGS  ………………………………………………  44
APPENDICES   ……………………………………………………….  46
vii
  
LIST OF APPENDICES
S. No.  Title        Page
Appendix 1.  Table of contents (Sample page)  ……………………………  46
Appendix 2.  List of tables (Sample page)  ……………………………  47
Appendix 3.  List of figures and illustration (Sample page)  ………….  48
Appendix 4.  List of appendices (Sample page) ………………………….
…  49
Appendix 5.  Abbreviations for literature citation and references  ………….  50
Appendix 6.  Conversion factors for SI and non-SI units ……………….......  61
viii
  
INTRODUCTION
The post-graduate programmes of studies in the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad are
designed to train students in theoretical as well as practical aspects of agricultural and
allied sciences requiring the preparation and presentation of a thesis in partial fulfillment
of requirements of degree. It has been noted over time that the theses though conforming
to general physical lay out differ considerably in the style and sequence of write up. This
results in a considerable variation in volume and exposition of dissertations and theses. In
this instruction manual, efforts have been made to include all the relevant information
helpful to the students and teachers for the preparation, writing, typing and presentation
of thesis. The contents of this manual mainly focus on the preparation of uniform theses.
A graduate thesis is a permanent evidence of contribution made by students in a
particular field of knowledge and should reflect credit on the University as well as on the
students. In almost all the fields, the productiveness of a scholar depends heavily upon his
proficiency as a writer. He/she has a duty to present his findings not only with precision,
but also intelligently and attractively.
A thesis must include all the significant results obtained and must disclose all the
methods and processes employed in research in such a detail that the work may be
repeated by anyone skilled in the field. The student(s) should be scrupulously careful to
give references to all the work on which his/her thesis depends directly or significantly.
Good usage requires documentation of statements whenever possible by reference to
published and unpublished work. Responsibility for different phases in the preparation
and checking of a graduate thesis rests jointly with the student, the members of his
advisory committee and the graduate (Director Adv. Studies) office. The student is
responsible for ensuring that the writing and typing conform to standard format within
the general framework of requirement set down herein; the advisory committee for each
degree may control the following.
1.  Thesis divisions and their order.
2.  Terminology for the divisions.
3.  Style where it influences organization.
4.  The arrangement of reference material in alphabetical order.
1
  
The office of the Director Advance Studies (at present) or Dean Graduate Studies
(proposed) is responsible for ensuring that the mechanical feature of the thesis satisfies
standards for published literary efforts. The student preparing a thesis will find that there
is a considerable, often confusing, diversity of style conventions. The principle ones have
been brought together in this manual, and collate the principle conventions of scholarly
writing into consistent, coherent style system.
The presentation of research results is an important work because of the permanence of
record and its reference by others. The manner in which it is done reflects not only upon
the individual worker, but also upon the organization of which he/she is a part. The
preparation of a manuscript which accurately conveys readable ideas is an essential phase
of research; it is just as valuable as doing more experiments; and it is fully as worthy of
our best efforts. The question arises how shall we write for presentation to the others,
particularly the scientific community? In order to maintain a uniform standard of
presentation of research results, guidelines in the next sections are outlined.
2
  
POINTS FOR CONSIDERATION
Following hints will help a lot in preparing and writing a graduate synopsis and thesis.
i.
Be brief, accurate and to the point.
ii.
Avoid repetition or duplication of ideas.
iii.
Spare and allow enough time for writing.
iv.
Use a simple, direct style which is condensed, but not so condensed as to be cryptic
or sacrifices precision and clarity of results.
v.
Organize the material in a logical sequence and not according to the order in which
experiments were conducted.
vi.
Revise the manuscript until it has unity, coherence, emphasis and accuracy, and so
clear that it cannot be mis-understood.
vii.
Avoid unnecessary details. However, give all the facts necessary for a trained
person to repeat the experiment(s).
viii.
Design suitable headings, sub-headings and sub-sub-headings. The paragraphs and
sentences should be short, to enable the reader to “skim” the thesis for its general
subject matter and to locate quickly and detailed part he/she seeks or is interested.
ix.
Let tabular data and illustrations speak for themselves. Confine the text discussion
to the meaning of the data.
x.
Plan the illustrations and tables in relation to page dimensions.
xi.
Insert photographs that are glossy, have plenty of contrast and pertain to the text.
xii.
Avoid long and complex or undigested (unclassified) data or too many tables.
xiii.
Arrange the tables to fit portrait or landscape on a page wherever possible and so
cast these that they could be accommodated in the prescribed format.
xiv.
Provide a complete and caption/title for every table, figure and illustration which is
self-explanatory and nouns in the caption/title preferably should start in capital.
xv.
Provide clear and concise column headings and sub-headings.
xvi.
Explain every symbol used in a table as a foot note of the same.
xvii.
Avoid foot notes for the citation of references, if any, should be included in the text
and quoted in the list of references at the end of thesis proceeding to appendices.
xviii.
Include letters, survey forms, raw data, statistical computations and other materials
which have been used or collected during the study in the appendices.
3
  
PART I: PREPARATION OF SYNOPSIS
The synopsis for a graduate programme can be divided into following sections.
1. Title
It should be comprehensive to reflect the main contents and subjects of the research
plan to be undertaken by the student.
2. Abstract
The abstract must be written in a single paragraph. This section must start with the
first 2-3 sentences about the importance and the rationale of studies, salient field and
analytical methodologies, methods and types of data collection, statistical treatment of
data, results and finally a concluding statement about findings.
3. Need of the Project
This section must contain statement(s) on the general subject, the orientation, setting,
and foundation, on which the investigations were made, but it is not and should not be
made a general literature review. The objective and rationale of studies must be
described.
The purpose of introduction is to orient the readers. It should contain a
statement of the problem to be investigated so that the reader(s) can proceed with the
nature and purpose of research in mind. It should overview briefly the scope, aims and
general characters of the research.
There is a tendency to use “Need of the Project or Introduction” as a second window for
“Review of Literature” with the incorporation of several citations. This is a duplication of
the scope and purpose of a subsequent section, the “Review of Literature”. It is, therefore,
desirable that “Need of the Project” should provide a general account of a particular topic
on which one has to embark upon.
4
. Review of Literature
This is an important sec
tion. Before writing this portion, the student should search
for relevant research articles from different sources, like library, scientific journals, data
bases, internet, major supervisor, senior students and others actively working in his/her
selected area/topic of studies. But the student must be critical in selection of relevant
4
  
research papers, their review and integration. It is recommended that student(s) must
study at least 15-20 original research papers before starting writing of synopsis and must
have copies of such papers with them.
5. Materials and Methods
This section should contain
elaborative experimental methods, analytical procedures
and statistical techniques to be followed, each supported with appropriate and
authenticated literature citations, Name-Year system (see thesis section). One aspect
which is mostly overlooked is the discussion with a statistician at the planning stage of
experiment which otherwise is highly required and very helpful for the students and
supervisors. Another aspect worth to consider is the research facilities available in the
department of the student, university or any other sister institute from where the
requirements could be met.
6
. References
An alphabetical o
rder be followed, details of which are given in part II - section
pertaining to thesis preparation. An acceptable format of synopsis is shown on the next
page. However, students are advised to consult GS 7 from time to time changes in rules
and regulation by the statutory bodies of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
W
hen the synopsis is at semi-final stage, students defend it in an open seminar at
university level. After incorporation of discussed and agreed suggestions in the seminar,
the synopsis is to be signed by the student, supervisory committee and other statutory
bodies, like Chairperson of the department, Director of the institute, Dean of the faculty.
Then it is presented in the office of the Director Advance Studies for final approval from
the Advanced Studies and Research Board (ASRB). Student(s) may consult the document
titled GS-7 for help and guidelines as amended from time to time by the university.
T
hree sample pages are given next to specify the format of synopsis.
5
  
(Page # 1  - Sample)
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD
DEPARTMENT OF -------------------
Synopsis for M.Sc (Hons.), M.Phil. or Ph.D. degrees
TITLE:
Sodium affects soil properties, growth and ion contents of cotton
Name of student:
-----------------------------------------------
Registration No:
-----------------------------------------------
ABSTRACT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------
6
  
(Page # 2 -  Sample)
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD
DEPARTMENT OF
-------------------------
Synopsis for M.Sc (Hons.), M.Phil.  or Ph.D. degrees
TITLE:
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Date of Admission:
------------------------------------------------
Date of Initiation:
------------------------------------------------
Probable Duration:
------------------------------------------------
Supervisory Committee
1.
----------------------------------
Chairman
2.
----------------------------------
Member
3.
----------------------------------
Member
4.
----------------------------------
Special member (Optional)
Need of the Project
-------------------------------------------------------.
Review of Literature
-------------------------------------------------------.
Materials and Methods
-------------------------------------------------.
References
-------------------------------------------------.
7
  
(Last page - Sample)
SIGNATURES
Name of student:
------------------------------------------ ----------------------
Supervisory committee (Name & Signatures)
1.
----------------------------
(Supervisor)
----------------------
2.
----------------------------
(Member)
----------------------
3.
----------------------------
(Member)
----------------------
4.
----------------------------
(Special member, if any)
----------------------
8
  
PART II. PREPARATION OF THESIS
1. The Volume of Thesis
The bulk of a thesis is no criterion for the excellence of a piece of work. A student must
keep in view the economy of space, labour, time and clarity of presentation. Padding with
lengthy descriptions and avoidable discourses do not add to the standard of scholarship.
The study of science enjoins on us a forthright, objective description of phenomenon and
interpretation of results. It is therefore, essential that the bulk of a thesis must be carefully
controlled, e.g. around 75-100 pages for M.Sc. (Hons.) or M.Phil. thesis and 150-200 for
Ph.D. dissertation in experimental, social and descriptive sciences including appendices
and tables (excluding illustrations) may be a reasonable volume to incorporate and digest
a lot of scientific information.
2. English Usage and Grammar
The students will be responsible for correct English usage and grammar. Small sentences
comprising 25-30 words may be good practice to follow. A good sentence is one which
describes or addresses one thing at a time in minimum words. Such straightforward
sentences are easy to construct (e.g. “There has been an increase in the amount of milk
consumed by teenagers” and “Teenagers are drinking more milk” - compare the two
sentences to say the same thing). The students may seek help of other competent persons
in this regard. The brief description given below will help the students in correct
expression. The following few rules address usages that have given many authors trouble
in
the past; any standard grammar book may be consulted for details. A good flow and
consistency of language in statements and paragraphs should always be maintained which
makes the presentation attractive.
a. Punctuation
•  Use a comma before 'and' or 'or' in a series of three or more items, e.g. "0.8, 2.1, and 3.9
-1
kg ha
"; "shoot biomass, root biomass, leaf blade or leaflet length and width, and plant
height"; but "nodule weight and size and N
fixation."
2
•   Use a semicolon to separate a series of items within a list if any one of them itself
includes a comma, e.g. Treatments in the second fertilizer study were @ 56, 112 and 448
-1
-1
-1
kg ha
N; 25 and 49 kg ha
P; and 47, 93, 139, 186 and 279 kg ha
K.
9
  
•  Punctuation in display lists (where each item starts on a new line) depends on the content
and context. If all the items are short, independent phrases, use no period. If anyone of
the items is a complete sentence, end each item with a period. If the list is functionally
part of the introductory sentence, punctuate with commas or semicolons and a final
period, just as we would if the sentence had no line breaks.
•  Use no comma in dates, e.g. May 2000; 14th May 2000.
•  Commas and periods come before a closing quotation mark, an asterisk, or a
superscripted footnote number; semicolons and colons come after. Do not double periods
at the end of a quotation: "Once is enough."
•  Use single quotes around cultivar names the first time these are introduced in the abstract
or text; however, do not use both single quotes and the abbreviation cv. or the word
'cultivar'. Place punctuation outside of the single-quote marks. Do not use cultivar quotes
with landraces or experimental lines.
•  For parentheses within parentheses, substitute brackets for the inner pair. For example: "-
--- declared the problem solved (Lloyd-Jones, 1873 [as cited by Andrews. 1996])."
Professional Societies publications require two exceptions in prose:
o
Use brackets to enclose scientific names that already contain parentheses, as in "soybean
[
Glycine max
(L.) Men.]” was ------- "An alternative is to use commas, as in "soybean,
Glycine max
(L.) Men., was -------."
o
Put equation numbers within brackets, regardless of other parenthetical marks. For
example: Eq. [1], Eq. [3] to [9].
o
For mathematical usage, fences are used inside out in the order [{( )}].
•  To form the plural of most abbreviations without periods, add a final s (e.g. RFLPs. PIs,
SEs). To form plurals of abbreviations with periods, lowercase letters used as nouns,
upper case letters that might be confused for something else, and for abbreviations or
symbols ending in a superscript or subscript, put an apostrophe before the ‘s’. For
example M.S.’s, A’s, F2’s.
•  It is advisable to follow anyone English dictionary consistently throughout the text in
general or where no explanation is provided in this manual regarding the punctuation.
The common dictionary in use is one published by M/S Longman or Oxford.
10
  
b. Hyphens, Spaces, and Dashes
A word containing a prefix, suffix, or combining form is a derivative and is almost
always written as one word. Compound words used to express an idea different from that
expressed by the separate parts are usually written as one word. Hyphens and en-dashes
are used to avoid a confusing sequence of letters, a confusing sequence of adjectives, a
jumble of ideas, or possible confusion with a word of the same spelling without the
hyphen, e.g. co-op, as distinct from coop. Comprehensive rules for compounding words
can be found in dictionaries, books of usage, and style manuals. Most of the compounds
and derivatives fall under the following general rules:
•   Derivatives are usually written solid, e.g. antiquality, clockwise, fourfold (but 10-fold or
1.5-fold), nonadditives, nonsignificant, postdoctoral, preemergent, reuse, shortwave.
•   Where several usages are acceptable, choose one and use it consistently throughout the
manuscript, e.g. winter hardiness or winterhardi-ness, but not both; likewise, main stem
or mainstem, but not both.
•   Use hyphens with prefixes to words that begin with a capital and sometimes in a few
awkward combinations that bring like vowels together, e.g. un-American, semi-
independent.
•   Hyphenate a compound adjective when used before, but not after, the word it modifies,
e.g. a winter-hardy plant; the plant is winter hardy.
•   Hyphenate two-word verbs but not phrasal verbs. T
he distinction is not always obvious,
but two-word verbs usually have the modifier first and the main verb second; phrasal
verbs have the verb first. It may be easier to memorize a few often-used forms. Common
examples include air-dry, heat-shock (but 'heat shock' as a noun), out-cross (but 'crossing
out'), winter-kill (but 'winterkill' as a noun).
•   Compounds in 'cross' are so many and vari
ed that a reference list drawn from a good
dictionary can help: cross-check, cross-country, cross-examine, cross-eyed, cross-fertile,
cross-fertilization, cross-fire, cross-grained, cross-hair, cross-index, cross-legged, cross-
link, cross-linkage, cross-linked, cross-multiply, cross-pollinate, cross-pollination, cross-
product, cross-purpose, cross-reaction (antigens), cross-reference, cross-section, cross-
sectional, cross-sterile, cross-tolerance, crossbred, crossbreed, crosscut, crosscutting,
crosshatch, crossing-over (in genetics), crossover, crosspiece, crosswalk and crosswind.
11
  
•  Use a hyphen after a prefix to a hyphenated adjective, e.g. semi-winter-hardy plant, non-
winter-hardy plant.
•  Use a hyphen in a compound adjective that includes a number. This applies especially to
units of measure, e.g. 10-yr-old field, 6-kg samples, 4-mm depth, 5 to 10-cm layer.
•  Hyphenate compound modifiers starting with the adverb 'well', except when another
adverb precedes it, e.g. well-known method, but very well known method.
•  Do not use a hyphen after an adverb formed by adding 'ly' to an adjective, e.g. an
intensively cultivated hillside (Note that the word 'early' ends in 'ly' but is
not an adverb;
therefore, "early-morning data collection" is correct.)
•  Use a hyphen for compound adjectival expressions as needed for clarity, e.g. "on a per-
gram basis, winter-grown cereals, but low molecular w
eight substance".
•  Use an en–dash instead of a hyphen in a compound or prefixed adjective that has a phrase
in one of its pans (and the phrase cannot be hyphenated), e.g. "
Avena
sterilis–
derived
resistance genes; pre–Civil War surveys."
•  Use an en-dash instead of a hyphen after a superscript or subscript, e.g. F3–derived;
NO
–N; but 'nitrate N' when spelled out.
3
•  Use hyphens to join numbers and prefixes in chemical names, e.g. trans-2-
bromocyclopentanol. There are exceptions
(see Dodd, 1986 for more details).
•  Use an en-dash between joined nouns of equal importance, e.g. Webster–Nicollet soil
complex; log–normal function; oxidation–reduction potential; corn–soybea
n rotation;
fusarium wilt–root–knot nematode complex.
•  As a specialized instance of the previous rule, use an en-dash between two chemical
compounds, e.g. HC1–H
SO
.
2
4
•   In references and in parenthetical values, use an en-dash to indicate a range of numbers,
e.g. "p. 23–49; Plant Dis. 66:17
2–176; during the final study years (1997–1999). If either
of the numbers is negative, or is otherwise modified, then use the word 'to' instead of the
dash, e.g. a score of -200 to 250; -5 to 10°C.
•   The above rules are given in part to explain why sometimes hyphens and sometimes en-
dashes appear in final typeset form, and why sometimes hyphens are added and
12
  
sometimes deleted. If we can not or do not wish to distinguish hyphens from en-dashes in
a manuscript, use hyphens throughout. Getting the hyphens absolutely correct is far from
the most important step in preparing a scientific document like theses. However, never
make a one-letter division, like a-mong; never carry over suffixes such as -ed, -able, -ible,
-ing; do not divide the initials of a name, or the forename and the initials, the month and
the day or such combinations as £12, 4s, 2005 BC or 6.00 P.M.; never carry over the
hyphen to the next page.
c.  Correct Use of Common Words
The following entries address common difficulties in scientific use of very common
words.
Affect vs. effect
(verb).
'To affect' mea
ns
to act
upon something that already exists; 'to
effect' means to bring some thing or condition into existence.
Affect,
vs.
effect
vs.
impact
(noun).
An 'effect' is a result or outcome; an 'affect' is an
emotion (the term is used chiefly in psychology); an 'impact' is a collision, the force of a
collision, or (by extension) a major effect. That is, 'impact' is
not a neutral equivalent of
'effect'.
Alternate vs. alternative.
Use 'alternate' to mean occurring or following by turns, or
alternating in time or space — first one, then the other.
Use 'alternative' for one of two or
more mu
tually exclusive possibilities.
Based on vs. on the basis of.
'Based on' is adjectival and must modify a noun or pronoun
which usually immediately precedes it. For example
"This conclusion is based on four
years of experience" or "Conclusions bas
ed on experience may still require testing." To
modify a verb, use a phrase starting with "on the basis of.
:
Change "based on
EXAMPLE
the first four years of results, we discarded the original hypothesis" to "on the basis of our
results, we discarded the original hypothesis."
Between
vs.
among
.
Use 'between' for two entities; 'among' for more than two.
cf. (Latin
confer,
compare) vs. see.
Use ‘cf.’ sparingly, to mean "see, for a contrasting
view." For scientific writing, the English 'see' a
nd 'compare' are preferable.
Compare to vs. compare with
(verb
+
preposition).
Use 'compare to' to
point out
similarities only; use 'compare with' to point out differences (or both differences and
similarities). More broadly, use 'compare to' for overall likenesses and con
trasts and for
subjective, qualitative comparisons and use 'compare with' for objective, quantitative
comparisons. Also do not be afraid to simplify "more --- compared with" to "more ---
than" (e.g., "more bio-mass at the second harvest than the first" instead of "more biomass
at the second harvest compared with the first").
13
  
Due to
(adjective or preposition)
vs. because of
(preposition).
'Due to' as an adjective
must modify a noun or pronoun; as a preposition, however, it is equivalent to 'because of
or 'owing to' and can modify a whole clause. Authorities disagree on this usage. The ACS
manual (Dodd, 1997) rejects the prepositional usage, and both
Webster's Tenth New
Collegiate Dictionary
and
The Hew Fowler's Modern English
(Burchfield, 1996) uphold
it. The CBE manual (1994) is silent on this point (CBE, 1994, p. 756). A writer who
wishes to avoid minor controversy may safely use 'because of instead of 'due to' at the
beginning of a sentence or an independent clause.
e.g. (Latin
exempli gratia,
for example) vs. i.e. (Latin
id est,
that is). Use ‘
e.g.’ to give
an example out of available possibilities; use 'i.e.' to specify exactly what is intended, if,
as you write, you think "for example" and "that is"
instead of “ee-gee” and “eye-ee”, you
will not have trouble with the distinction.
e.g. and i.e. vs. for example and that is.
Use the abbreviated form in figures, tables, and
in parentheses; otherwise, use the English words in full.
Ensure vs. insure
(verb).
Use 'ensure' to
mean "make certain that a desired outcome
occurs." Use 'insure' to mean "protect" against monetary loss as in an insurance policy.
et al. (Latin
et alii,
and others) vs. etc. (Latin
et cetera,
and the rest).
‘Et al.’ is limited
to reference citations and entries, and refers to people. There is one period ('et al.', not 'et.
al.' or 'et al'). , and only one 'etc.' refers the reader to additional, unspecified examples
of
what has just been mentioned. If an adequate group of examples has been introduced as
such (with 'e.g.' or 'for example'), the 'etc.' is unnecessary. If the reader needs to be told to
think of other possibilities, say so in English words ("and the like" or "and so forth"). In
scientific writing, however, a specific statement is preferable. Give the right examples, or
a complete list, but do not leave it to the reader to figure out what else we mean.
Further vs. farther
(adj. or adv.).
'Further' means in addition or to a greater extent;
'farther' implies distance in space or time.
Geographical names.
Use common English equivalents of place names where su
ch exist
(e.g. Rome, not Roma; Munich, not Munchen; Mexico City, not Mexico; but Buen s
1
Aires. Beijing).
1
Many dictionaries include geographic names, either in the regular sequence or as an
appendix. Geographic coordinates as well as spelling can be checked on-lin
e
at
http://mapping.usgs.gov
/ www/gnis/gnisform.html
(for
the USA and Antarctica) or
h
ttp
:
//164.214.2.59/gns
/h
t
m
l/index.ht
m
l (for the rest of the world).
14
  
Likely vs. probable
(adj.)
and likely
vs.
probably
(adv.).
In general, use ‘probable’ and
'probably', unless the emphasis is on the future. 'Likely' is often used in combination with
another adverb (e.g. more likely, most likely, very likely), but such expressions do not
often have a place in scientific writing. For example
"The phenomena described in this
research could probably have ---," but not 'The phenomena described in this research
could likely have ---" (because the statements are in the past). "It is likely that the results
will ---" is a good use of likely, since it looks to the future: "It is likely that the results
were ---" makes sense only if the emphasis is less on the explanation than on the
likelihood of the explanation.
Percent vs. percentage vs. percentage  point.
'Percent' is used with numeric values, and
is spelled out only at the beginning of a sentence. 'Percentage' describes such a value, and
is always spelled out. 'Percent
age point' is used with numeric values, and refers to a step
of 1% in a percentage value; it is treated as a word, not a unit, and so is not abbreviated.
For example
"Grain fill was 20%; Nine percent of the plants; the percentage of grain fill."
Principal
(adj.)
vs. principle
(noun).
Use ‘principal’ to mean foremost, chief, main; use
'principle' to mean a tenet or belief.
Restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses (that
vs.
which).
Generally, 'that' introduces a
restrictive clause, one that gives information essential to the meaning of the sentence;
'which' may also do so, but to be rea
d as restrictive the 'which' must not be preceded by a
comma. Examples: "Only soil samples that contained >30% clay were tested. Those
samples which were rejected for testing were stored for use in a separate study. This is
the house that Jack built." If in such sentences, the restrictive 'that'-clause were omitted,
essential meaning
(what kind of samples? >30 % clay; which samples? the rejected ones;
what about this house? Jack built it)
would be lost.
"Which" introduces a nonrestrictive clause, one that gives only incidental or
supplemental information. For example
"The soil samples, which had been stored in a
rain shelter, were tested for clay content. The rejected s
amples, which received no further
treatment, were stored for use in a separate study. The house, which Jack built, will be
razed next week. If in such a sentence the nonrestrictive 'which' clause were removed, the
basic statement
(samples were tested, samples were stored, the house will be razed)
remains.
The difference in meaning between restrictive 'that’ or ‘which’ and nonrestrictive 'which'
is so im
portant, but is signaled by so slight an item as an ordinary comma, that it may be
worth re
sorting to a simple rule. Use 'that' (but not ‘which’) with no comma before when
15
  
the added phrase gives essential information (is restrictive); use 'which' with a comma
before when the added phrase is incidentally useful (is nonrestrictive).
Some troublesome singulars.
Apparatus (pl. apparatuses or apparatus); criterion (pl.,
criteria); medium (pl., media); phenomenon (pl., phenomena); species (pl., species).
Use
vs. employ
(verb).
'Use' is the simpler word, and neutral. 'Employ' carries additional
connotations, as of advantageous use or hiring for wages.
Use vs. utilize
(verb).
The meanings are not identical. Use 'utilize' meaning "to turn to
practical use" only to indicate that some unexpected use was found for an object or
procedure, e.g. At the development phase, it was possible to utilize ea
rlier research. The
word ‘use’ is used to put something to a particular purpose, e.g. The old hospital is not
used anymore.
Using.
The participle 'using' must modify the agent of the action, and the agent mu
st be
expressed. People (and experiments) use, but plants and pieces of equipment do not. A
passive sentence such as "the samples were oven-dried usin
g the larger oven" implies "by
us" (this grammatical construction is called
subject understood),
but in scientific writing
an explicit statement is far preferable. Recast the sentence in the active voice (We oven-
dried the samples using ---). Alternatively, change "using" to "with" for pieces of
equipment or materials and "by" for procedures.
Whereas vs. wh
ile vs. but.
Most contexts require only the simple 'but'. Use 'whereas'
only when we intend a strong and parallel contrast (while on the contrary). Use 'while'
occasionally for a mild and parallel contrast, but never when it can be confused with "and
at the same time. Except in formal proclamations and resolutions (where it means "in
view of the fact that"), 'whereas' requires a comma before and takes no comma after.
Words of foreign origin.
Foreign words in common usage in English (such as
denouement, de novo, per diem, or Zeitgeist) are considered to have been incorporated
into the language. They are thus considered Engli
sh words, and are set in roman type, not
italic. Dictionaries indicate roman vs. italics for words of non-English origin. Common
words of this kind include ad hoc, a priori, et al., in situ, in vitro, in vivo, per se, vice
versa, and vs. Do not hyphenate such foreign words, not even in adjectival position (e.g.
in vitro development, ex officio member, in situ changes).
/ (slash or solidus).
With rare exceptions, the slash is reserved for mathematical divi
sion
and ratios. If we want to express a combination of ideas, decide on exactly what we mean
and say it in words. For example
"In an expression such as 'appearance of collar/ligule of
first leaf, change the wording to 'collar or ligule', 'collar and ligule' or 'collar and/or
ligule'. "
16
  
Slang words.
The authors/writers should avoid the use of such words as for as possible
or should give some explanation for the readers and audiences.
Foreign Words
: Foreign words are underlined unless used in a quotation. Foreign words
that have been anglicized need not be underlined.
Tense:
The past tense is proffered for scientific writing . Exceptions are quotations and
references to existing facts , or to facts which will be true in the future , in which cases
the present and future tenses may be used.
Person:
Personal pronouns (I, we, he, they, and the like) should be avoided .For example,
“Clover was found to be better quality than was alfalfa “ is pre
ferable to “I (or he, they,
e
tc.) found that clover was of better----”. However, an exception to this rule is the case
where personal pronouns appear in material that is quoted.
17
  
ABBREVIATIONS
Use abbreviations sparingly. If we have to abbreviate, try to find a standard abbreviation
given in Ulrich, Abacus or CABI abstracting agencies rather than making up one specific
to our paper. If the use of an ad hoc abbreviation is necessary, avoid letter groups that
already are familiar abbreviations but with a different meaning. For a fictitious example,
do not abbreviate leaf appearance interval as LAI, even if we are not going to discuss leaf
area index. Some commonly used abbreviations and acronyms (an acronym is an
initialism or abbreviation that can be pronounced as a word) have become words in
themselves; DNA and ELISA, for example, are rarely spelled out.
Avoid using abbreviations at the beginning of sentences and in titles. Never begin a
sentence with a single-letter abbreviation (I instead of iodine, for instance). Let the
context decide whether to use an abbreviation. What makes sense in the dense
presentation of Materials and Methods or the quantitative presentation in Results may be
clumsy in the introduction or the conclusions. Abbreviations could be used in the text
provided it is written in full where it appears first time in text. The following are
exceptions to this rule:
1
. Titles:
Such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., M/S, Sr., Jr. etc. are always abbreviated.
2
. Lengthy Words:
Acceptable abbreviations for lengthy words and phrases are used
separately throughout the text. Such abbreviations must be presented in parentheses
immediately after the words or phrase for which they stand. For example “Phosphate
buffered saline (PBS) was used in all dialysis operations”. In succeeding sentences
throughout the thesis, initials PBS could be used in place of words phosphate
buffered saline.
3
. Commonly Used Abbreviations:
Abbreviations such as “mm” and “cm” which do
not require a period, or an “s” to make a plural, are acceptable. The very form must
agree with the quantity, e.g. “one mm is…., but Three mm are …”
4
. Space and Time:
To save space and time, it is sometimes convenient to use
abbreviations for lengthy words or phrases used separately throughout the text.
Abbreviations must be presented in parenthesis immediately after the words or
phrases for which they stand.
18
  
In “Discussion” and  “Summary” parts of a Thesis, while discussing the results,
s
tudents often fail to mention the exact nature of treatment and give only symbols
such as A , B , C & D or I,  II,  III & IV  or T1, T2, T3 & T4 etc. This often confuses
the reader(s) and he/she finds it difficult to fully grasp the idea meant to be clarified.
If the reader has to refer to the previous pages again and again, for the explanation of
notations and symbols, the very interest in the publication is lost. It is therefore,
essential that treatments should be explained very briefly within parenthesis
whenever the symbols are used. Alternatively use symbols for treatments which are
very much self explanatory. However, always try to use internationally accepted
abbreviations throughout the thesis. A list of commonly used and
nationally/internationally accepted abbreviations is given (Table 1, Appendix 6)
.
In
addition to this list and all of the above statements, it is preferred to prepare a list of
abbreviations and symbols used in the thesis and to place it before the
acknowledgement page.
Com
mon abbreviations that do not need definitions. Use may be restricted in tables and
figu es (N) or in addresses (A)
res (T), with numeric valu
Ab
brevi Meaning (restrictio
n)  Abbrevia
Meaning (restriction)
at
a.i. active ingredient  Inst. Institute, Institution
ion
tion
Agric. Agriculture, Agricultural
Int. International (A)
(A)
ARS Agricultural Research Max.
(A)
Maximum (T)
ASA  Am. Society of Agronomy  Min.  Minute (N)
Service
Avg.  Average (T)  Min.  Minimum (T)
CI Cereal Inv estigation
Mo Month (N)
Coef. Coefficient (T)  No.  ber
(number)
Num
CSREES
Cooperative State Res.,
NRC National Resource
S  s
Edu .
and Ex tension
Conservation Service
Service (A)
(A)
CSSA
Crop Sci. Society of
o.d. Outside diamet
er (N)
America
cv. or  PI Plant Introduction,
Cultivar
CV.
Plant Identif
ication
d  Day (N)  Res.  Research (A)
Dept.  Department (A)  S  Second (N)
Diam.  T,N)  Sp., spp.  Species
Diameter (
Dry wt.  )  oc. Am.
Dry weight (N,T SSSA  Soil Sci. S
EC Electrical conductivity Stn.  Station (A)
SCS  TVA
Soil Conservation Service  Tennessee Valley
Authority
ELISA Enzyme-liked
Univ University (A)
.
immunosorbent assay
Eq.  Equatio n, Equations (N)  A
US United States of
America
19
  
Expt.  Experiment (A, N)  USDA
US  Dept.  of
Agriculture
Fig.  ber), Figures
Figure (num
US-E US Enviro
PA  nmental
(range of number
s)
Protection A
gency
Fresh
Fresh weight (N,T)  VS., vs.  Versus
wt.
G  Gravity constant  Wk  Week (N)
i.d. Inside diameter (N)
The CI must be  abbre n for app nus:
followed by a two-letter viatio licable in cereal ge
Cl
av
for
oat, CI
ho
for barley
(H
ordeum),
CI
tr
for wheat
(Triticum
),
etc.
Use cv. only be nd preferably only if also after a scientific name.
fore a cultivar name, a
§ Ab  with values > 6; otherwise, spe t both n
breviate only
ll ou umber and month, with
sonic in that the value is ap
dication  proximate.
Despite the strictures of the CBE style manual (CBE, 1994, p.  use “nr” as
187), do not
an ab  for number; do end this abb
breviation revia perio
tion with a  d (No.).
# Use this symb s name.
ol only after a genu
20
  
THESIS AND ITS SUB-SECTIONS
A thesis generally covers full information on a narrow field of studies conducted by a
scientist and presented in a logical sequence. It cannot be compared to a book or a
monograph. In writing a thesis, certain conventions in presentation are observed. This
special type of presentation is generally sub-divided into following parts and subsections:
1.  The Preliminaries
a.
Title page.
b.
Dedication (Optional).
c.
Acknowledgements.
d.
Table of contents with page references.
e.
List of tables with titles and page references.
f.
List of figures with titles and page references.
g.
List of illustrations, if any, with page references.
h.
List of appendices, if any, with page references.
2.  Main Body:
This part is divided into following chapters:
a.
Introduction.
b.
Review of Literature.
c.
Materials and Methods.
d.
Results and Discussion.
e.
Summary and conclusions.
3.  References
4.  Appendices
A brief description about the sections and sub-sections is given below for the sake of
general guidelines to students.
1. The Preliminaries
a. Dedication:
This part is optional.
21
  
b. Acknowledgement:
In acknowledgement, credit should be given to individuals who
have contributed to the research or to the thesis preparation, funding agency of research
and the institute that facilitated the research work.
c. Table of contents:
The table of contents should list in order the titles of major
divisions and subdivisions exactly as these appear in the body of thesis (Appendix 1), the
list of figures, all with their page citations. Also include the list of references and
appendices. No material preceding the table of contents should be enlisted in it. Examples
of acceptable format of tables of contents are given in the appendices 1-4.
The heading, table of contents, is typed one line space in the centered capitals at top of
page and without terminal punctuations. The body of the table of contents then follows
one 1.5 line space below. Table of contents (continued) is put on succeeding page(s) flush
with the left margin. Spacing depends on the table. Generally, use a 1.5 line space
between major headings and between major and sub-headings; use a single line space
between sub-headings of the same order. Major headings are in capitals or in title format.
Major headings begin at the left margin; and second order sub-headings two more spaces.
All the words in sub-headings are in title format except articles, prepositions, and
conjunctions except in cases where any of the letters is the first in a title.
d. List of tables and figures:
If tables and figures are used in the thesis, list of tables and
list of figures must be included in the table of contents but on separate pages.
i. List of tables:
The position of the heading, list of tables is the same as for the table of
contents, with the column heading, page, in the same position. Arabic numerals are used
for tables. These are typed at the left margin and aligned vertically by the period marks
following each number (Appendix 2).
ii. List of figures:
The list of figures (Appendix 3) appears on a separate page and in the
same general form as the list of tables. No distinction is made among drawings, figures,
or photographs. These should all be designated as figures and numbered consecutively
with Arabic numerals.
22
  
e. The handling of tables and figures:
All the tables (Appendix 2) and figures
(Appendix 3) are faced in the same manner as the written text unless dimensional
considerations require the presentation along the length of the page. In this case, these
should read properly when the page is rotated 90 degrees clockwise.
Figures larger than the normal page size usually may be reduced photographically. If
reduction is not feasible, the material may be folded. When folded, the sheet should be
approximately, but no larger than 8.25 by 10.75 inches with a 1-inch left margin for
binding remaining free of folds. Because of special requirements of the microfilm
service, this arrangement is not recommended for the Ph.D. thesis. Samples of lists of
figures are shown in appendix 3. All the figures and tables must be numbered and titled.
The number and title of figure are placed one 1.5 or double line space below the figure.
2. Main Body
The construction of main body of a thesis is the joint responsibility of the student and his
Advisory Committee. It should be appropriate to the character of the work to be reported.
Generally, following sections are included.
a.  Introduction:
This is more extended and elaborative version of the introduction as
presented in the synopsis. It is re-emphasized that this chapter must contain statement(s)
on the general subject, the orientation, setting, and foundation, on which the present
investigations were made, but it is not and should not be made a general literature review.
The objectives of studies must be described.
The purpose of the introduction is to provide
an overview of the problem. It should contain a statement of the problem investigated so
that the readers could proceed with the nature and purpose of the thesis in mind. It should
briefly outline the scope, aims and general character of research.
There is a tendency to use “Introduction” as second window for “Review of Literature”
with the incorporation of several citations. This is a duplication of the scope and purpose
of a subsequent section, the “Review of Literature”. It is, therefore, desirable that
“Introduction” should be kept confined to a general account which has led one to embark
on a particular project.
23
  
b.  Review of literature:
The “Review of Literature” should begin with a few
references by way of introduction, the rest or bulk should only include citations pertinent
to the investigations. A “Review of Literature” is thus a documentation of the related
work done by others, its merits and limitations, i.e. critical analysis of reported research
on the problem or topic under review. The review may be placed under sub-headings for
clarity and more critical analysis. In principle, the Review of Literature should provide an
account of research work done by others on the related topics. Implicitly it has to be a
critique of the previous research results.
While it is not the intention to discourage the students from presenting all the information
he/she likes to include in a “Review”, it is necessary at the same time, that a judicious
care is taken by his teacher while editing, to retain only those references which are
pertinent to the subject of thesis. The students are advised to be exact and concrete in
preparing a critique of results of research done in the past. The following steps are
usually involved in the preparation of Review:
•  Before a student starts working on a thesis, he/she should consult his teacher about the
need and scope of the “Review” as well as digestion of reviewed information in the
“Discussion” so as to eliminate diffused and unnecessary literature on various aspects
of an extensive field.
•  The students may do full exercise at the first typing stage taking note of English Usage
and Grammar and get it vetted by his/her Supervisory Committee to bring it within the
four corners of logical presentation of the information which is pertinent to his/her
subject.
•  After vetting, thesis should be typed on an ordinary paper and a semi-final thesis be
submitted to the Directorate of Advance Studies for a final general check, after which
final typing may be done.
These stages of work will allow a student to have mental satisfaction of presenting
everything that he/she thought was necessary and by the end will be trained for scientific
presentation of facts.
Overall, the Review of Literature should be a complete and orderly development of the
status of the knowledge in the area bearing of the work. It should be divided into
subsections as appropriate for the particular situation. The sub-sections dealing with
24
  
different aspects of work should be arranged as nearly as possible in the same order as the
items are considered in later divisions. The On-Line Search facility and Computer Search
Services are very helpful for review of literature. To improve the database, a researcher
should become familiar with:
i.
The contents of database particularly list of publications and rationale for included
ii.
items.
The methods of obtaining documents and other materials uncovered by the search.
iii.
The structure and contents of system dictionary of key words or descriptors.
iv.
The method of constructing search instructions using key words and
logical
v.
operators.
The likely number of items to be obtained by a search request, sometimes provided
by docume
ntation.
c.  Materials and met
hods
In
some cases, the word “Materials” is not applicable. In such cases this chapter may be
named “Methodology”. This s
ection usually explains various aspects of what materials
were used and how the work was done. The soundness of research has its foundation on
the methods followed by the investigator. The validity of his/her technique and logic of
interpretation need to be clearly stated and must be acceptable.
To understand and evaluate a thesis, readers would like to know exactly ho
w the study
w
as carried out. If the author does not supply complete information in this chapter, no
credence can be placed on the research results and conclusions. It is also essential that the
material selected and the basis of selection, if drawn from literature, be clearly described
along with other relevant information on the subject.
If a student does not attend to his work personally, he
/she will always remain shy and
in
different to the use of research, analytical procedures, statistical methods and their
presentation. The make and models of scientific equipment used may be mentioned
which will help validate the health of findings.
d.  Results and discussion
S
ome workers name this chapter as simply “Results and then Discussion” separately.
This is the main and an im
portant part of the manuscript containing description of
experimental observations. Representative data, therefore, should appear in a clear,
25
  
concise, and logical form. The  emphasis should  be on  precise description  of  the
phenomenon  observed  as  well  as  collection  of  data  and  not  on  reflection.
A very common error to be avoided, when no number is involved, the word percent
should be used instead of percentage, e.g. “it was expressed as a percentage of the total; it
was 10 percent or 10 % of the total but not to be expressed as percent of the total.
e
.  Discussion
If results are giv
en in one section and the discussion in another, then title “Discussion”
may be given. If both the “Results and Discussion” are presented combined, then separate
title “Discussion” must be avoided.
In
this section, the writer may answer the questions “So what?” as he/she interprets
his/her data in relation to the original objectives. He clarifies the meanings and
implications of various results and may indicate possible future developments. The
reasoning done must be accurate and in accordance with a recognized method of logic. It
is emphasized again that “Review of Literature” and “Discussion” parts of a thesis, are
intimately related, the former reflected entirely in the subsequent account.
f.
References
It is important tha
t the students should go to the primary sources of information and an
effort always be made to obtain the information from original articles published in a
journal or a reprint obtained from the author. The tendency to cite the literature from
abstracting journals is neither enough nor in scientific spirit. In only unavoidable
circumstances, the secondary source of information may be utilized or when the original
article is in a language other than English. Secondary reference(s) should be written in
parenthesis after quoting primary reference without the main heading. Following points
should be kept in mind while enlisting references.
i.
References should be arranged alphabetically a
ccording to author and then according
to the year.
ii.
A complete
reference includes author(s), year of publication, complete title of the
paper, and reference to journal (See sample references).
iii.
The number of the issue of the volume of a journal may
not be given, unless paging
of each number starts from 1 or issue number may be given in all the references
consistently.
26
  
iv.
In case of book, the name of the author(s), year of publication, title, edition and
complete address of the publisher must be given and should not be underlined.
v.
Names of journals and number of their volumes should not be underlined.
vi.
The words ‘Idem’ and ‘Ibid’ may be avoided in citing references.
vii.
Abbreviations for journals should be used as given in Appendix 5.
viii.
The word ‘References’ may be used in preference to ‘Literature Cited’.
ix.
The title must appear exactly as it does on the first page of article or the t
itle page of
the book.
x.
For titles of scientific papers, only the first letter of the first word i
s capitalized
(exceptions are proper names, scientific names or certain other words which are
capitalized
always).
xi.
The family name of the first or sole author precedes the initials or given names. The
names of co-author(s) follow in normal order and are separated by comma.
xii.
When the reference i
s the proceedings of a symposium etc. and the author to be cited
is the editor, it may be indicated as such in parenthesis.
xiii.
References except of publication by Government department or other Orga
nizations,
for which no author is known, may be listed as Anonymous.
xiv.
In case of publications of organizations, learned societie
s or Government department,
the name of the organization, Government department, Ministry or Division be given
in place of author, if no author is indicated in the publication.
xv.
Work of authors, whether individual or joint should be discussed under different
topics or headings in the review, i.e. integration and analytical treatment.
xvi.
There are many systems of writing References in vogue in
various sciences and
journals. With this end in view, a model list is given in Table 2 to be followed for
uniformity in the theses preparation.
27
  
Format of Listing References
i. Journal article
2+
Ghafoor, A. and A. Salam. 1993. Efficiency of Ca
concentration in irrigation water for
reclamation of a saline-sodic soil. Pakistan J. Agric. Sci. 30:77-82.
Kelly, J.D., J.R. Stavely and P.N. Miklas. 1996. Proposed symbols for rust resistance
genes. Annu. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. 39:25-31.
Lemmon, H. 1986. Comax: An expert system for cotton crop management. Sci. 233:29-
32.
Ha san, A., M. Abid, A. Ghafoor and M.R. Chaudhry. 1996. Growth response of wheat
s
and sorghum to EC
, SAR
and RSC grown on the Rasulpur and Bhalike soil series.
iw
iw
Pakistan J. Soil Sci. 11: 5-9.
Tiessen, H., E. Cuevas and P. Chacon. 1994. The role of soil organic matter in sustaining
soil fertility. Nature. 371:783-785.
ii. Article in serial publication
Brown, P.D. and M.J. Morra. 1997. C
ontrol of soil-home plant pests using glucosinolate-
containing plants. Adv. Agron. 61:167-231.
Edwards, A.C. and M.S. Cresser. 1992. Freezing and its effect on chemical and biological
properties of the soil. Adv. Soil Sci. 18:59-79.
iii. rticle not in english with english abstract
A
Title translated into english
Rosolem, C.A., J.C.O. Silver
io and . O. Primaves. 1982. Foliar fertilization of soybean:
II. Effects of NPK and micronutrients. (In Portuguese, with English abstract.) Pesq.
Agropec. Bras. 17:1559-1562.
Ti in original language
tle
Rosolem, C.A., J.C.O. Sil
verio, and 0. Primaves. 1982. Adubacao foliar de soja: II.
Efeitos de NPK e micronutrients. (In Portuguese, with English abstract.) Pesq. Agropec.
Bras. 17:1559-1562.
iv
. Without english abstract (Translated title)
Vigerust, E. and A.R. Selmer-Olsen. 1981. Uptake
of heavy metals by some plants from
sewage sludge. (In Norwegian.) Fast Avfall. 2:26-29.
v. Magazine article
Anonymous. 1984. Co
mputer programmes from your radio? Agri. Marketing. 22(6):66.
Mulvaney. D.L., and L. Paul. 1984. Rotating crops and tillage. Crops Soils. 36:18-19.
28
  
vi. Article with known errata follow-up
Baker, J.M., E.J.A. Spaans and C.F. Reec
e. 1996. Conductimetric measurement of CO
2
concentration: Theoretical basis and its verification. Agron. J. 88:675-682 [errata:
88(6):vii].
vii. Books (
including bulletins, reports, multivolume works, series)
Brown, J. 1966. Soils of the Okpilak River region, Alaska. CRREL Res. Rep. 188. U.S.
Army Cold Reg. Res. Eng. Lab, Hanover, NH, USA.
Bernard, R.L., G.A. Juvik, E.E. Hartwig and C.J. Edw
ards. 1988. Origins and pedigrees
of public soybean varieties in the United States and Canada. USDA Tech. Bull. 1746.
Chemical Abstracts Service. 1989. Chemical Abstracts Service source index: 1907-19
84
cumulative, plus annual supplements. Chem. Abstr. Serv., Columbus, OH, USA.
Dzombak, D.A. and F.M.M. Morel. 1990. Surface complexation modeling: H
ydrous
ferric oxide. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.
Ghafoor, A., M. Qadir and G. Murtaza. 2004. Sal
t-affected soils: Principles of
m agement. Allied Book Centre, Urdu Bazaar, Lahore, Pakistan.
an
Lal, R. (Ed.) 1998. Soil processes and the carbon cycle. Advances
in Soil Science. CRC
Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
viii. Book equivalent: Numbe
red bulletin, report or special publication
California Certified Organic Farmers. 1995. California Certified Organic Farmers
certification handbook. CCOF, Santa Cruz, CA, USA.
Schneiter, A.A. (ed.). 1997. Sunflower technology and
production. Agron. Monogr. 35.
ASA, CSSA and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.
Tabatabai, C.T. Johnston, and M.E. Sumner (e
ds.). 1996. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3.
SSSA Book Ser. 5. SSSA. Madison, WI, USA.
Taylor, B.N. 1995. Guide for the use of the Int.
System of Units (SI). NIST Spec. Publ.
81  U.S. Gov. Print. Office, Washington, D.C., USA.
1.
Wadleigh, C.H. 1968. Wastes in relation to agriculture
and forestry. USDA Misc. Publ.
1
065. US Gov. Print. Office, Washington, D.C., USA.
Westerman, R.L. (ed.). 1990. Soil testing and plant ana
lysis (3rd Ed.). SSSA Book Ser. 3.
SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.
ix. Conference, symposium
or workshop proceedings and transactions
29
  
Ghafoor, A., M. Qadir and G. Murtaza. 1997. Potential for reusing low quality drainage
water for soil amelioration and crop production. p. 411-420.
In:
A. Tariq
and M. Latif
(eds.) Proc. Int. Symp. Water for the 21st Century: Demand, Supply, Development and
Socio-Environmental Issues. 17-19 June 1997, Lahore, Pakistan.
Holmes, J.W. (ed.). 1968. Trans. Int. Congr. Soil Sci., Adelaid
e. Elsevier, New York,
NY, USA.
McGarry, D
. 1992. Final report of the soil management training workshop, Dalby. 3-4
July 1991. Conf. and Workshop. Ser. QC92008. Dept. Primary Industries, Brisbane,
QLD, Australia.
Muhammed, S. a
nd A. Ghafoor. 1986. Reclamation of two saline-sodic soil series
through subsoiling and gypsum application using marginal water for leaching p. 221-223.
In:
R. Ahmad and A.S. Pietro (eds.). Prospects for Biosaline Research. Proc. US-Pak.
Biosaline Res. Workshop. 22-26 Sept. 1985, Univ. Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.
x. Chapter in a book
Achom, P.P. and H.L. Balay. 1985. Developments in potassium fertilizer technology. p.
49-66. In R.D. Munson
(ed.) Potassium in agriculture. ASA, Madison, WI, USA.
Gardner, W.H. 1986. Water content. p. 493-544.
In
A. Klute (ed.) Methods
of soil
an ysis. Part 1 (2nd Ed.). Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.
al
Johnson, D.W. and D.E. Todd. 1998. Effects of harvesting intensity on f
orest
productivity and soil carbon storage. p. 351-363.
In
R. Lal et al. (ed.) Management of
carbon sequestration in soils. Adv. Soil Sci. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Qureshi. R. H., A. Hassan and A. Ghafoor. 1994. Use of drainage water for h
alophyte
production. p. 237-312.
In:
R. Choukr-Ullah, C.V. Malcolm and A. Hamdy (eds.)
Halophytes and Biosaline Agriculture. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, USA.
xi. Chapter in a proceedings volume
Cagirgan, M.I. and C. Token 1996. Path-coefficient analysis for grain yield and related
characters under semiarid conditions in
barley. p. 607-609.
In
A. Slinkard et al. (eds.)
Proc. 5th Int. Barley Genet. Symp., Vol. 2. Univ. Saskatchewan Ext. Press, Saskatoon,
SK, Canada.
Caviness, C.E. and F.C. Collins. 1985. Double cropping. p. 1032-1038.
In
R. Shibles
(ed.) Proc. W
orld Soybean Res. Conf., Ames. 12-17 Aug. 1984. Westview Press,
Bo lder, CO, USA.
u
Jansson. S.L. 1967. Soil organic matter and fertility. p. 1-10.
In
G.V. Jacks (ed.) Soil
chemistry and fertilit
y. Trans. Int. Soc. Soil Sci. 1966. Univ. Press, Aberdeen, Scotland.
30
  
Klausner, S.D. 1993. Mass nutrient balances on dairy farms.
In
Proc. Cornell Nutrition
Conf. for Feed Manufacturers. 19-21 Oct. 1993. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY, USA.
Power, J.F. and V.O. Biederbeck. 1991. Role of cover crops in integrated crop production
systems. p. 167-174.
In
W.L. Hargrove (ed.) Cover crops for clean water. Proc. Int.
Conf., 9-11 April. Soil and Water Conserv. Soc., Ankeny, IA, USA.
xii. Dissertation or thesis
Endres, C. 1986. Influence of production practices on yield a
nd morphology of
Am thus cruentus
aran
and
Amaranthus hypochondriacus
. M.S. thesis, Dept. Agron.,
Univ. Arkansas, Fayettevill
e, AR, USA.
Kirkegaard, J.A. 1990. Effect of compaction on the growth of pigeon pea on clay soils.
Ph.D. diss., Dept. Soil Sci., Univ. Queensl
and, St Lucia, Australia.
Murtaza, G. 1997. Charge characteristics of normal and salt-affected soils and their
effects on Na-Ca exchange during reclamation. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. S
oil Sci., Univ. Agri.,
Fa alabad, Pakistan.
is
Pyle, M.E. 1982. A comparison of determinate and indeterminate soybean lines for
double cropping in V
irginia. Ph.D. diss., Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ.,
Blacksburg, VA, USA (Diss. Abstr. Int. 438:3095).
Schuster, A. 1987. The response of cotton to ammonium and nitrate in the irrigation
solution (In Hebrew with English summary). M.S
. thesis. Hebrew Univ. Jerusalem,
Rehovot, Israel.
xiii. Abstracts
NB: Cite abstracts only until a more formal publication becomes available
Caldwell, B.A. 1
997. Fatty acid esterase activity in forest soils and ectomycorrhizal mat
communities. p. 223. Agron. Abstr. 1997. ASA, Madison, WI, USA.
Krishnamurthi, G.S.R. and P.M. Huang. 1991. The role of Al in Fe(II) transf
ormation. p.
96.
In
Abstracts, Annual Meeting, Clay Minerals Soc., Houston, TX. 5-10 Oct. 1991.
Clay Miner. Soc., Houston, TX, USA.
xiv. Software and software documentation
Abacus Concepts. 1991. Super ANOVA users guide. Release 1.11. Abacus Concepts,
Berkeley, CA, USA.
Boone, K., D. Porter and J. McKinion. 199
5. Rhizos-1991: A simulator of row crop
rhizosphere. USDA ARS-113. USDA ARS Crop Simulation Res. Unit, Mississippi State,
Stoneville, MS, USA.
Fick, G.W. 1981. ALSIM 1 (Level 2) user's manual. Agron. Mimeo 81-35. Dept. Agron.,
31
  
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY, USA.
SAS Institute. 1990. SAS user's guide: Statistics (4th Ed.). SAS Inst., Cary, NC, USA.
SAS Institute. 1994. The SAS sys
tem for Windows. Release 6.10. SAS Inst., Gary, NC,
USA.
xv. Miscellaneous
Department publications, pamphlets, and other brief publications
ICRISA
T. 1985. Pearl millet male-sterile line ICMA 2 and its maintainer line ICMB 2:
Plant Material Description No. 5. ICRISAT, Patancheru, AP, India.
Sandsted, R.F. 1980. Naming and release of 'Midnight': A new black bean cultivar. Dept.
Vegetable Crops Mimeo. Ser. VC-239. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY, U
SA.
Encyclopedia article
S
alisbury, F.B. 1981. Response to photoperiod. p. 135-167.
In
O.L. Lange et al. (ed.)
Physiological plant ecology: I. Responses to the physical environment. Encyclopedia of
plant physiology. Vol. 12A. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
Government documen
ts
Pennsylvania Agricultural Statistics Service. 1993. Statistical summary and annual report.
1992-1993. PASS-102. Penn. Dept. Agri., Harrisburg, PA, USA.
P
atents and plant patents
Dudeck, A.E. 1995. Berm
uda grass plant 'FHB-135'. US Plant Patent 9030. Date issued 3
Jan. 1995.
T
itcomb, S.T. and A.A. Juers. 1976. Reduced calorie bread and method of making same.
US Patent 3 979 523. Date
issued 7 Sept. 1976.
Performan
ce and variety tests
H
alseth, D.E., W.L. Hymes, R.W. Porter and R.L. MacLaury. 1996. 1995 New York
State Dry Bean Variety Trials. Fruit and Vegetable Sci. Rep. 58. Cornell Univ., Ithaca.
NY, USA.
S
chapaugh, W.T. and K.L. Roozeboom. 1993. 1992 Kansas performance tests with
soybean varieties. Agri. Expt. S
tn. Rep. Prog. 673. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS,
USA.
Steadman, J.R., K.F. Grafton, K. Kmiecik, J.M. Kolkman, M. Kyle Jahn and R. Mainz.
1998. Bean w
hite mold nursery, 1997. Annu. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. 41:173-174.
Tyler, J. (ed.). 1994. The uniform soybean tests, Southern States 1995. USDA-ARS,
Stoneville, MS, USA.
Printed
publication with on-line edition and/or updates
32
  
University of California. 1996. UC IPM pest management guidelines: Tomato. UC-
DANR Publ. 3339. (Available on-line with updates at http://www.ipm.
ucdavis.edu/PMG/ selectnewpest.tomatoes.html).
Standards
ASAE (Am. Soc. Agri
c. Eng.). 1993. Manure production characteristics. Engineering
Practice Subcommittee, ASAE Agri. Sanit. Waste Ma
nage. Comm. ASAE Standard
D384.1. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI, USA.
Supplements and special volumes
H
ardy, R.W.R, R.C. Bums, R.R. Hebert, R.D. Holsten and E.K. Jackson. 1971.
Biological n
itrogen fixation: A key to world protein. p. 561-590.
In
T.A. Lie and E.G.
Mulder (eds.) Biological nitrogen fixation in natural and agricultural habitats. Proc. Tech.
Meet. Int. Biol. Programme (Sect. PP-N), Prague and Wageningen, 1970. Spec. Vol.,
Plant and Soil. Martinus Nijhoff, The H
ague.
Young, W.C. 1991. Influence of
row spacing and seeding rate on tall fescue seed
production. J. Appl. Seed Prod. 9(suppl.):48.
On-line electronic sources
Treat electronic sources as you would the same kind of material in print, starting with the
author, year, and title and then giving furthe
r information as for a chapter or journal
a
rticle, but adding the essential on-line address URL and the date the information was
posted or accessed or when the address was verified.
E
lectronic version only
DeVries. F.P., M. Jansen
and K. Metalmark. 1995. Newsletter of Agro-Ecosystems
Modeling [Online]. November extra Ed. Available by e-mail Listserv (camase-
l@hern.nic.surfnet.nl) or Web link to http://www.bib.wau.nl/camase/cam-news.html
(verified 1 Nov. 1996).
Downing, M., D. Langseth, R. Stoffel and T. Kroll. 1996. Large-scale hybrid poplar
production economics: 19
95 Alexandria, Minnesota, establishment cost and management
[Online]. BIOENERGY 96. Proc. Natl. Bioenergy Conf., Partnerships to Develop and
Apply Biomass Technologies, Nashville, TN. 15-20 Sept. 1996. Available at
http://www.esd
. oml.gov/bidp/papers/bioen96/downing.html (posted 10 Dec. 1996;
verified 24 Nov. 1998).
National Agricultural Statistics Service. 1997. Crops county data [Online]. Available at
http://usda.mannlib.comell.edu/data-sets/crops/9X100 (verified 30 Nov. 1998).
University of California. 1996. Tomato pest management guidelines. Univ. of Calif. Pest
Management Guidelines Publ. 14. (Available on-line with updates at
http://www.ipm
.
ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.tomatoes. html. (Verified 30 Nov. 1998).
33
  
CD-ROM
Moore, K., and M. Collins (eds.). 1997. Forages, CD-ROM companion [CD-ROM
c
omputer file]. 5th Ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA, USA.
Agronomy Journal, Volumes 17-22, 1925-1930 [CD-ROM computer file]. ASA,
Madison, WI and Natl. Agri. Libr., Madison, WI, USA (Nov. 1994).
g.  Appendices
Appendices are generally included to help clarification and make readers understand
s
tatements in the main body of theses or dissertations. In addition, some times appendices
are useful to support the interpretation of results. This becomes a record of data for
d
ifferent computations later by the author or the readers.
3. Page Numbering
Small Roman numerals must be used for the Preliminary section. The title
page is understood to be ‘i’ but no number appears on this page. Arabic
numerals begin with the first page of the body
of thesis, but no number
a
ppears on this page. Numbering continues consecutively through the
appendices. All the
numbers, both Roman and Arabic, are printed 2.5 cm from
the bottom of the paper flushed to the center of page. No punctuation is used
with the page numbers. Headings or narratives end one 1.5 line space above
the page number.
34
  
ON-LINE RESOURCES
It is difficult to describe all of the tools and techniques for searching the literature. It will,
however, be quite helpful to identify some of these. In following a search strategy, it is
important to be familiar with guides to library search. Most of the databases have lists of
indexing terms for use in formulating search requests. A list of such selective electronic
sources is presented below.
Library Catalogs and Databases
http://www.nal.usda.gov/isis
/
telnet://opac.nal.usda.gov
(Natl.
Agri.
Libr.
catalog and journal citations: login “
isis”).
http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/gateway.html
(Library of Congress
WW
W/Z39.50 Gateway;
with links to other libraries).
http://lcsweb.lcspub.psu.edu/
(CIC
Virtual Catalog: Search across multiple university
library catalogs).
http://ww.w3.org/hypertext/DataSources/bySubject/Overview.html
(The World-Wide
Web Virtual Library: Subject Catalogue: a distributed database).
References
http://www.umi.com/hp/Products/Dissertations.htm
(University Microfilms International;
search for titles and dissertation abstracts numbers; an order is not required for a search).
http://www.uvm.edu/~ncrane/estyles/
(
Web page for Li and Crane Electronic Styles:
examples, principles, ordering information for the book).
Abstracts, Table of Contents
Abstracts and tables of contents are available for many journals, usually at the publisher's
web site. Coverage may be limited to the current year, and rarely goes back earlier than
1996. For example, following sites yield access to the contents of several hundred
scientif
i
c journals. (To see if a journal you want has on-line tables of contents or
abstracts, try the publisher's home page. The
NAL
card catalog entry for a journal iden-
tifies the publisher, and an Internet search should locate the home page).
http://www.aic.ca
/
joumals
/
index.html
(Agri.
Inst.
of Canada jou
rn
als)
http://www.idealibrary.corn/glogin.htm
(In
t.
Digital Electronic Access; tables of contents
and abstracts for journals from Academic Press,
W.B.
Saunders
and Churchill
Livingstone).
http://www.blacksci.co.uk
/
products/joumals/jnltitle.htm
(Blackwell
journals).
35
  
http://www.springer-ny.com or
http://www.springer.de
(Springer-
Verlag
journals;
journals of various publishers with electronic editions handled by Springer).
http://www.wkap.nl
/
kapis
/
cgi-bin/world
/
jmllist.htm?Jrnlhome
(Kluwer
journals)
Nomenclature: Plants, Pests and Soils
http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/searchgrin.html
(scientific names of plants; crop
registration; accessions; descriptors).
http://trident.ftc.nrcs.usda.gov/plants/plntmenu.html (Plants Database Access Table).
telnet://fungi.ars-grin.gov
(Fungal pathogens; login “login user”, password “user”).
http://www.scisoc.org/resource/common/
(
American
Phytopathological
Society:
Common Names for Plant Diseases 1994, updated 1996).
http://pest.cabweb.org/GUEST/imidsind.htm
(IMI
descriptions of fungi and bacteria).
http://www.statlab.iastate.edu:80/soils/osd/
(National Off
i
cial Soil Series Descriptions
w/searches
& FTP).
Patents and Plant Variety Protection
http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html
(U.S. patents, including plant patents).
http://p
rob
e.nal.usda.gov:8
000
/related
/
a
bo
utpvp.html (U.S. plant variety protection).
Geography
http://164.214.2.59/gns/html/index.html
(
USGS
internat
i
onal).
Public
Nima
Gnps
Query Form
http://mapping.usgs.gov/www/gnis/index.html
[USGS Mappin
g
Information: Geographic
Names Information System,
GNIS).
http://www-nmd.usgs.gov/www/gnis/gnisform.html
(USGS Mapping Information: GNIS
Data Base Query Form).
Scientific Societies
http://www.cast-science.org/society.htm
(Council on Agricultural Science and
Technology; CAST member societies
,
with links to most of them, including
Agri.
Inst.
of
Canada).
http://www.aic.ca/
(
Am. Agri.
Econ.
Assoc.).
http://www.aaea.org/
:
(Am.
Assoc.
Agri.
Edu.).
36
  
http://www.ais.msstate.edu/AAAE/
(Am. Assoc. of Cereal Chemists).
http://www.scisoc.org/aacc/
(Am. Forage and Grassland Council).
http://www.forages.css.orst.edu/Organizations/Forage/AFGC/index.html
(Am. Inst.
Biol.
Sci.).
http://www.aibs.org/core/index.html
(Am. Oil Chemists'
Soc.).
http://www.aocs.org/
(Am. Peanut Res. & Educ.
Soc.).
http://clay.agr.okstate.edu/plantsoilsci/links/welcome.htm
(Am.
Phytopathol.
Soc.).
http://www.scisoc.org/
(Am. Soc.
Animal
Sci.).
http://www.asas.uiuc.edu/
(Am. Soc. Plant Physiologists).
http://www.aspp.org/
(
ASAE).
http://asae.6rg/
(Assoc. of Off
i
cial Seed Analysts).
http://www.zianet.com/AOSA/
(
Entomol.
Soc. Am.).
http://www.entsoc.org/
(Soc. for Range Management).
http://www.srm.org/
(
Soc. of
Nematologists).
ht
t
p://ianrwww.unl.edu
/
ianr/plntpath
/
nematode
/son/sonhome.htm
(
WSSA
).
SI
Units and Conversion
http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/
(
National Institute of Standards and Technology reference on
constants, units, and uncertainty).
http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/200/202/mpo.reso.htm
(Metric Internet links including
conversion calculators).
37
  
SPECIFICATIONS FOR M.Sc., M.Phil. AND Ph.D. THESES
1. General  Information
a.
The thesis shall be prepared and bound on A-4 size, 90-100 g white paper on which
the title of the thesis, author’s name, and the year of submission, are to be
superimposed in golden colour on the front/title page; the background colour will be
black for M.Sc./M.Phil. and dark green  for Ph.D. theses.
b.
The title, chapter headings and table titles shall not have terminal punctuation.
c.
Incorrectly divided words are not acceptable, e.g. clockwise but not clock-wise, reuse
but not re-use, and winter-hardy but not winter hardy (refer to English Usage and
d.
Grammar).
The title on the thesis must be approved by the ASRB as per the synopsis.
e.
Page numbers in Arabic numerals shall be situated in the center, 2.5 cm
from the
bottom of the paper except for the first page of major chapters.
f.
There may be several methods of doing the same thing. Study th
e manual carefully
because all documentation must conform to the standards prescribed.
g.
The heading or title of rows and columns of a table are generally in sin
gular form.
2
. Typing  Directions
a.
Font No. and face:
A font No. of 12 with Times New Romans Regular Font face be
b.
used.
Any special material to be included in the thesis as an “EXIBIT” must be prepared
on the t
hesis paper unless there is special requirement to use other paper.
c.
Striking over letters or words is not acceptable. No corrections by pen or pencil are to
appear in the thesis.
d.
Margins (Top, Bottom, Left, and Right) of about 2.5 cm are to be maintained.
e.
The text must be type
d on 1.5 line space and each full page must contain 25-30 lines.
f.
The tables are to be typed on single line space.
g.
The titles of tables, columns, rows and fig. must be typed on single space.
h.
Always use the standard abbreviations, once sp
elled at the first place of appearance;
if new abbreviation is coined, it must be followed consistently through out t
he text. It
is advisable to prepare a list of abbreviations and place before the Acknowledgement.
i.
The units of measurement as per the SI System of Units must be followed (Appendix
j.
6).
The figures in a table must be uniform with respect to digits after decimal but this
level may be different in different tables.
38
  
3. The Format of T hesis
Parts of Thesis:
The parts of a thesis are to be arranged as follows:
a
.  Title Page:
The title page must follow spacing and capitalization as sample page.
b.  Certificate:
This must
be in the form of the attached sample.
c.  Acknowledgement:
It is optional. If given, should be realistic an
d brief. Lengthy,
flattering remarks and undue appreciations are against the scientific traditions. Bette
r
to accommodate this section on one page, in general.
d.  Table of Contents:
It should have primarily chapters, sub-headings and sub-sub-
headings only. Avoid too many details (Appendix 1).
e.  List of Tables:
It is essential part and be given in the
format given at appendix 2.
f.  List of Figures:
It is required, if any Fig. are included (Appendix 3).
g.  List of Plates/Photos:
It is required, if any Photos are in
cluded (Appendix 3).
h.  Main Body of Thesis.
This comprises introduction, review of literature, materi
als
and methods, results and discussion, conclusions, references and appendi
ces.
i.  Appendices.
These should be included for the understanding of text (Appendix
4).
j.
Name on the title page must be the same as it is on official documents of the student.
4. Illustrations
Illustrated material of full page size may be photographed on light weight photographic
paper and inserted as a page of the thesis. The services of photography are generally
available to stud
ents for the preparation of prints to be used in the thesis. Digital cameras
for photographs and computer graphic software to draw graphs can be used, of which
colour prints can be printed for thesis. Photographs, where dimensional measure or
contrast is to be brought out should include a scale in its composition or a scale line, be
drawn on photographs. The photograph should be impersonal representation of the
material required to be duplicated.
The photos may be in glossy black but colour photo prints may also be used, and may be
preferred in the case of photos of vegetation. Reproduction of material to be included in
the thesis shall be prepared so as
to produce clear black and white copy. Negative
P
hotostats, ozalids, breuning and other process prints must be avoided. The scales on ‘X’
and ‘Y’ axis should be similar to have better comparison of graphs when more than one
graphs pertaining to the same property are placed on one page, e.g. six graphs showing
changes in SAR for five soil depths after harvest of each of the six crops.
39
  

5. Proof Reading
40
  
(Sample Title Page)
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CULTURAL TREATMENTS ON MORPHOLOGICAL
AND YIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF WHEAT CULTIVARS
(Triticum aestivum
L
.)
BY
MOHAMMAD SAEED AHMAD
Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN
AGRONOMY
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
DECEMBER 2005
41
  
(Sample Certificate Page)
T
o
The Controller of Examinations,
The members of the Superv mitted by Mr.
isory Committee find the thesis sub
--------------
--
---
(
Registration No.
) satisfactory and recommend that it be processed for evaluation by
th
e External Examiner(s) for the award of degree.
CHAIRMAN:
------------ -----------------------
----
MEMBER:
---------------------------------
------
MEMBER:
---- ----------------
-------------------
SPECIAL MEMBER (Opti
onal):
---------------------------------------
42
  
PROCEDURE FOR SUBMISSION OF THESIS
T
he student may consult offices of the Director Advance Studies and Director Research
to
ensure that the thesis is in proper form while submitting paper (Soft) bound copy of
semi-final thesis after defense  Later he/she will submit three
seminar at university level.
p
aper bound copies of the M.Sc. thesis or Ph.D. dissertation including the original and
tw
o photocopies to the Controller of Examinations not later than the date specified by the
auth
orities. An additional copy of the thesis is better to prepare and send to the agency if
th
e scholar obtained financial assistance from any agency.
In
case of genuine hardship where delay is caused by factors beyond human control,
relaxation may be granted by the Vice Chancellor on the recommendation of the
supervisor and Advance Studies and Research Board (ASRB).
A
fter the receipt of thesis, the Controller of Examinations will arrange for its evaluation
b
y the External Examiner(s). There is one national External Examiner for M.Sc. thesis
evaluation, who is ist in his/her field, is not employ
eminent scient ee of the UAF and/or
h
as no relationship with the candidate. An oral examination will be organized by the
Chairman of the th su ory committee after consultation
esis  pervis  with the nominated
E
xaminer.
The Ph.D. diss ll luated by two External Examiners from
ertation wi  be eva  technologically
a
dvanced countries, like USA, Canada, UK, Australia, Japan, Germany and France etc. as
per directive of the Higher Education Commission (HEC) as unif
orm policy for all the
degree awarding Institutes. The examiner is supposed to be a person of eminence, of high
repute and of sound integrity, and a senior scientist.
The Controller of Examinations, after having received the award on the thesis, will send a
copy of thesis to each of the University and Department Libraries. In addition, the thesis
must conform to the standards laid down for this purpose by the ASRB and explained in
GS-7.
43
  
SUGGESTED READINGS
American Forage and Grasslands Council, Forage and Grazing Terminology Committee.
1991. Terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals. Pocahontas Press, Blacksburg,
VA,USA.
American Institute of Physics. 1990. AIP style manual (4th Ed.). Am. Inst. of Physics,
New York, NY, USA.
American Mathematical Society. 1990. A manual for authors of mathematical papers.
Am. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, USA.
A
merican Phytopathological Society, Committee on Standardization of Common Names
fo
r Plant Diseases. 1994. Common names for plant diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN,
USA.
American Society for Microbiology. 1991. ASM style manual for journals and books.
Am. Soc. Microbiol., Washington, D.C., USA
American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Cultural Practice
s Equipment Committee.
1
986. Terminology and definitions for agricultural tillage implements. p. 310-319. In
R.H. Hahn and E.E. Rosentreter (eds.). ASAE Standards 1986. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI,
USA.
American Society of Agronomy.1998. Publications handbook and style manual. ASA-
CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.
Awan, J.A. 2003. Scientific presentations. Unitech Communications, Faisalabad,
Pakistan.
Bishop, C.T. 1984. How to edit a scientific journal. ISI Press, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Booth, V. 1
984. Communicating in science: Writing and speaking. Cambridge Univ.
P
ress, New York, NY, USA.
Calvert, P. (ed.). 1990. The communicator's handbook: Techniques and technology.
Agricultural Communicators in Education. Maupin House, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Campbell, G.S. and J. van Schilfgaarde. 1981. Use of SI units in soil physics. J. Agron.
Educ. 10:73-74.
CBE (Council for  Biology Editors). 1994. Scien
tific, style and format – The CBE
M
anual for authors, editors and publishers (6th Ed.). Cambridge Univ. Press, New York,
NY,  USA.
Cleveland, W.S. 1994. The elements of graphing data (2nd Ed.). AT&T Bell
Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
Darmouth College’s Committee on Sources. 1988. Sources: Their use and
acknow
ledgment. Dartmouth College. Hanover, NH, USA.
Committee on the Conduct of Science. 1989. On being a scientist. National Academy of
Sciences, Washington, D.C., USA.
44
  
Council of Biology Editors, cientific style and format:
Style Manual Committee. 1994. S
T
he CBE manual for autho ). Cambridge Univ. Press,
rs, editors and publishers (6th Ed.
N
ew York, NY, USA.
Dodd. J.S. (ed.). 1997. The ACS style guide: A manual for authors and editors (2nd Ed.).
Am. Chem. Soc., Washington. D.C., USA.
Ebel, H.F, C. Bliefert and W.E. Russey. 1987. The art of scientific writing. VCH
Publishers, New York, NY, USA.
Ghafoor, A., G. Mu
rtaza and S.I. Hussain. 2006. Fundamentals of scientific
communications and presentations. Allied Book Centre, Urdu Bazaar, Lahore, Pakistan
Lancashire. P.D., H. Bleiholder, T. van d
en Boom, P. Langelilddeke, R. Stauss, E. Weber
and A. Witzenberger. 1991. A uniform decimal code for growth stages of crops and
weeds. Ann. Appl. Biol. 119:561-601.
Li, X. and
N.B. Crane. 1996. Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic
information (Rev. Ed.). Information Today, Medford, NJ, USA.
Natural Resources Conservation Service. 1982-
1996. National soil taxonomy handbook.
Issues 1-9. USDA-NRCS. Washington, D.C., USA (Available on-line at
http://www.stailab.iastale.edu/soils/
nssh/; verified 1 Dec. 1998).
Petersen, R.G. 1977. Use and misuse of multiple comparison procedures. Agron. J.
69:205-208.
Rupnow, J.H., J.W. King and L.K. Johnson. 2001. Thinking verbally. Communication
tips for technical presentations. Foo
d Technol. 55:46-48.
Taylor, B.N. 1995. Guide for the use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST
Spec. Publ
. 811. Physics Lab., NIST, Gaithersburg, Madison, WI, USA.
University of Chicago Press. 1993. The Chicago manual of style (14th Ed.). Un
iv.
Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Zinsser, W. 1988a. On writing
well (3rd Ed.). Harper & Row Publishers, New York, NY,
USA.
Zinsser, W. 1988b. Writing to learn. Harper& Row Publishers, New York, NY, US
A.
45
  
Appendix 1. Table of contents (Sample page)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………… iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS   …………………………………….  iv
LIST OF TABLES   ……………………………………………..  v
LIST OF FIGURES  ……………………
………………………..  vi
LIST OF APPENDICES  ………………………………………….….  vii
INTRODUCTION  ……………………………………………..    1
REVIEW OF LITERATURE …………………………………………    4
Water Resources   …………………………………….    4
Water Quality Parameters   ……………………………    7
Soil Responses to Irrigation  ……………………………    9
MATERIALS AND METHODS  …………………………………….  12
Water Analysis   ………………
………………………..…….  13
EC ……………………………………………… 14
Ions ……………………………………………… 15
Soil Analysis …………………………………………
…… 17
Physical properties …………………………… 18
Chemical properties …………………………… 21
Statistical Analysis …………………………………
….. 24
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  …………………………………….  27
Soil Characteristics …………………………………….. 28
Physical
…………………………………….. 29
Chemical …………………………………….. 32
Crop Yield …………………………………
………… .. 34
Growth components …………………………… 35
Economic yields  …………………………… 48
Economics Evaluation …………………………………….
52
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  …………………..  61
REFERENCES ……………………
……..…………………………...  68
LIST OF APPENDICES  ……………………………………………...  74
46
  
Appendix 2. List of tables (Sample page)
LIST OF TABLES
S. No. Title        Pa
ge
1.  Staging scales commended by the ‘Ad Hoc Committee on
re
Growth Staging  …………………………………………….  24
2.  Some symbols and abbreviations widely used in statistics  ..  31
3 Base SI units comm used in scientific publications  ..  39
.  only
4 Derived SI units with specia es commonly followed
.  l nam
in scientific work   …………………………………….  41
5.  The prefixes used in SI system of units of measurements  ..  42
6 Preferred (P) and acceptable (A) units used in publications  ..  50
.
7.  Preferred (P) and acceptable (A) units for quantities  ..  53
8.  Conversion factors for SI and non-SI units ………………….  54
9.  Common abbreviations that do not need definition  ………...   55
10.  Recommended type sizes for posters  ………………….  56
47
  
Appendix 3. List of figures and illustrations (Sample page)
LIST OF FIGURES
S. No. Title        Page
1.  Power input to plasma chamber  …………………………….    3
2.
Probe signal circuit  …………………………………….   8
..
3.  Plasma diagnostic system
……………………………. 25
4. Cross section of plasma chamber  ……………………… …. 34
5.  Electron density versus time after magnetron pulse ………
…..  51
6  sion f
Electron-atom colli requency VS. electron density  … 56
48
  
Appendix 4. List of appendices (Sample page)
LIST OF APPENDICES
S. No.  Title       Page
1.  Abbreviations for states and prov nces of the USA, Canada
i
and Australia  ………………………………………………  76
2.  Useful tips for scientific an r writing of documents  …  77
d bette
3.  Principles related to spelling and capitalization of words for …
scientific writing   ……………………………………...  79
4.  The correct use of punctuation in professional writing  …  80
5
.  The use of compound words and derivatives in professional
documents ………………………………………………... 81
49
  
Appendix 5. Abbreviations for literature c
itation and references
I
. Abbreviated journal titles.
Note that a single-word title is not abbreviated and does
not
end in a period.
AAPG Bull.
Agro Ban
ker.
A
BL Agri. Review.
Agro Vet. News.
Abstr.,
abstr.
[Abs
tr
act
(
s), abstract]  Agro. Ecosystems
Ac
ad.
[A
cademy]  Agrochem. Soil S
ci.
Acta Ag
ri. Scand.
Agrochemophysica
Acta C
h
em. Scand.
Agrochimica
Acta Crystallogr.  Agro-Ecosystems
Ac rtic.
ta Ho
Agron.
[Agronomy]
Adv. [A
dvances]  Agron. Abstr.
Ad ron.  Agron. J.
v. Ag
Ad pl. Microbiol.
v. Ap
Agron. Soc. N.Z. A
n
nu. Rep.
v. Ec
Ad ol. Res.
Agronomie (Paris)
Adv. Fro
nt. Plant Sci.
Agroplantae
Adv. Genet.
AIChE (many related publications)
Adv. Lipid Res.
Alexandria
J.
Agric. Res.
Adv. Microb. Ecol.
Am. [America, American]
Adv. Soil Sci.
Am.
Assoc.
Pet.
Geol.
Bull.
Adv. Water Resour.
Bull.
Agri. Abstr. Bull.
Am. Econ. Rev.
Agri. Statist Pakistan.
Am. J. Agric. Econ.
Agri. [Agriculture, Agricultural]
Am. J.
Bot.
Agri. Admin. Ext.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
Agri. Biol. Chem.
Am. J.
Enol.
Vitic.
Agri. Econ.
Am. J. Sci.
Agri. Econ. Res.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
Agri. Econ. Tech. Bull.
Am. Lab.
Agri. Ecosyst. Environ.
Am. Midi. Nat.
Agri. Eng.
Am. Mineral.
Agri. Environ.
Am. Nat.
Agri. Food Chem.
Am. Oil Chemists’ Soc. Monogr.
Agri. Food Sci.
Am. Soc. Surf. Min. Reclam.
Agri. For. Meteorol.
Am. Soc. Test. Mater.
Agri. Hist.
Am. Stat.
Agri. Human Values
Anal. Biochem.
Agri. Meteorol.
Anal. Chem.
Agri. Rev.
Anal. Chim. Ada
Agri. Syst.
Anal. Lett.
Agri. Tec. (Santiago)
Anal. Methods Pestic. Plant Growth
Agri. Venezie
Regul.
Agridigest.
Analyst (Amsterdam)
50
  
Angew. Bot.  Arkansas Farm. Res.
Animal Feed Sci. Technol.
ARS
[Agricultural Research Service]
Animal Prod.
As. [Asia, Asian]
Ann. [Annals,
Anna
les]
ASA [Am. Soc. Agron.]
Ann. Agri. Fe
nn.
ASA Spec. Pub
l.
Ann. Agron.
ASAE Publ.
Ann. Amelior. Plant.
Asian J. Plant Sci.
Ann. Appl. Biol.
Assoc.
[Association,
Associates]
Ann. Arid Zone
ASTM Spec. Tech. P
ubl.
Ann. Bot.
mic]
At. [Atom, Ato
Ann. Geophys.
At. Spectrosc.
Ann. Inst. Sla
t. Math.
Atmos. Environ.
Ann. Math. Stat.
Atmos. Ocean
Ann. Microbi
ol.
Aust J. Ex
pt. Agri. Anim. Husb.
Ann. NY Acad. Sci.
Aust. J. Agri. Res.
Ann. R. Agri. Co
ll. Swed.
Aust. J. Biol. Sci.
Ann. Sci. For.
Aust. J. Bot.
Annu.
(Annu
al]
Aust. J. Chem.
Annu. Rep. NMR
Spectrosc.
Aust. J. Plant Physiol.
Annu. Rev. Biochem
.
Aust. J. Sci. Res. Ser.
Annu. Rev. Cell Bi
ol.
Aust. J. Soil Res.
Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst.
Aust.
Vet. J.
Annu. Rev. Entom
ol.
AZRC News.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.
ci.
Balochistan J. Agri. S
Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
Beitr.
[Beitra
ge]
Annu. Rev. Phytop
athol.
Beitr. Tabakforsch
Annu. Rev. Plant P
hysiol.
Ber. Dtsch. Chem. G
es.
Antonie van
Leeuwenhoek
Better Crops
Plant Food
Appl. Environ. M
icrobiol.
mie,
Biochem.
[Bioche
Biochemistry,
Appl. Geochem.
Biochemic
al]
Appl. Magn. Reson.
Biochem. J.
Appl. Micro
biol.
Biochem. Phys
iol. Pflanz.
Appl. Microbio
l. Biotechnol.
Biochem. Syst
. Ecol.
Appl. Phys. (Berlin
)
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
Appl. Phys.
Biochimie
Appl. Phys. Lett.
Biodegradation
Appl. Spectrosc.
Horde.
Biol. Agri.
Arch. [Archives]
Biol. Fertil. Soils
Arch. Biochem. B
iophys.
Biol. Membr.
Arch. Environ. Con
tain. Toxicol.
Biol. Plant.
Arch. Exp. P
athol. Pharmakol.
Biol. Res. J.
Arch. Forstwes.
Biologia.
Arct. Alp. Res.
Bi .
om. Bull
Arid Zone R
es.
Biometr.
[Biometrical,
Biometry]
51
  
Biometrics
Can. Entomol.
Biometrika
Can. Geotech. J.
Biophys. J.
Can. J. Agri. Sci.
Bioresour. Technol.
Can. J. Animal Sci.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
Can. J. Biochem.
BioScience
Can. J. Bioch
em. Physiol.
Biotechnol.
Can. J. Bot.
Biotechnol. Prog.
Can. J. Chem.
Biotropica
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
Bodenkd.
[B
odenkunde]
Can. J. For. Res.
Bol.
[Boletino]
ytol.
Can. J. Genet. C
Boll.
[Bollettino]
Can. J. Microbiol.
Bot.
[Botanical, Bo
tany]
Can. J. Phys.
Bot. Gaz.
Can. J. Plant Pathol.
Bot. Mag.
Can. J. Plant Sci.
Bot. Rev.
Can. J. Res. Sect.
Boundary-Laye
r Meteorol.
Can. J. Soil S
ci.
Br.
[British]
Can. J. Spectrosc.
Br. J. Appl. Phys.
Can. Min. Metall. Bull.
Bull. [Bulletin]
Can. Mineral.
Bull. Ala. Agri. Expt. S
tn. Auburn
Caryologia
Univ.
Castanea
Bull. Ala. Agri. Expt. S
tn. Polytech.
Catena
Inst.
Cell
Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.
Cell Tissue Res.
Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn.
Cell. Mol. Biol.
Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am.
Cent. [Center(s), Centre(
s
)
, Central]
Bull. Environ. Contam. Tox
icol.
Cereal Chem.
Bull. Int. Assoc. Eng. Geol.
Cereal Res. Commun.
Bull. Rech. Agron
. Gembloux
Chem. [Chemi
stry, Chemical]
Bull. Torrey Bot. Clu
b
Chem. Abstr.
Bull. Y. Tenn. Va
l. Auth. Natl. Pert.
Chem. Engg. Sci.
Dev. Cent.
Chem. Geol.
Bull. Yale Univ. Sch.
For.
Chem. Phys. Lett.
Bull. Yale Un
iv. Sch. For. Environ.
Chem. Phys
. Lipids
Stud.
Chem. Rev.
Bull. Zoology.
Chemosphere
Bur. [Bureau, Bur
eaux]
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61
  
Appendix 6. Conversion factors for S
I and non-SI units
To convert
Column 1 SI Unit  Column  2  non-SI
To convert
column 1
Units
column 2
into column
into column
2, multiply
1, multiply
by
by
Length
0.621  kilometer, km (10
m)  mile, mi  1.609
3
1.094 meter, m  yard, yd  0.914
3.28  meter, m  foot, ft  0.304
1.0  micrometer, µm (10
m)  micron, µ  1.0
- 6
3.94 x 10
millimeter, mm (10
m)  inch, in  25.4
- 2
- 3
10  nanometer, nm (10
m)  Angstrom, Å  0.1
- 9
Area
2.47 hectare, ha  acre  0.405
247  Sq. km, km
(10
m)
acre  4.05 x 10
2
3
2
- 3
0.386  Sq. km, km
(10
m)
square mile, mi
2.590
2
3
2
2
2.47 x 10
square meter, m
acre  4.05 x 10
- 4
2
3
10.76  square meter, m
square foot, ft
9.29 x 10
2
2
- 2
1.55 x 10
Sq. millimeter, mm
(10
m)
square inch, in
645
- 3
2
- 3
2
2
Volume
9.73 x 10
cubic meter, m
acre-inch 102.8
- 3
3
35.3  cubic meter, m
cubic foot, ft
2.83 x 10
3
3
- 2
6.10 x 10
cubic meter, m
cubic inch, in
1.64 x 10
4
3
3
- 5
2.84 x 10
liter, L (10
m
) bushel, bu 35.24
- 2
- 3
3
1.057 liter, L (10
m
)  quart (liquid), qt  0.946
- 3
3
3.53 x 10
liter, L (10
m
)  cubic foot, ft
28.3
- 2
- 3
3
3
0.265 liter, L (10
m
) gallon  3.78
- 3
3
33.78 liter, L (10
m
)  ounce (fluid), oz  2.96 x 10
- 3
3
- 2
- 3
3
2.11 liter, L (10
m
)  pint (fluid), pt  0.473
Mass
2.20 x 10
gram, g (10
kg)  pound, lb  454
- 3
- 3
3.52 x 10
gram, g (10
kg)  ounce (avdp), oz  28.4
- 2
- 3
2.205  kilogram, kg  pound, lb  0.454
0.01  kilogram, kg  quintal (metric), q  100
1.10 x 10
kilogram, kg  ton (2000 lb), ton  907
- 3
1.102  mega gram, Mg (tonne)  ton (US), ton  0.907
1.102  tonne, t  ton (US), ton  0.907
Yield and Rate
0.893  kilogram per hectare, kg ha
pound per acre, lb
1.12
- 1
acre
- 1
7.77 x 10
kilogram per cubic meter, kg m
pound per bushel, lb
12.87
–2
- 3
bu
- 1
1.49 x 10
kilogram per hectare, kg ha
bushel per acre, 60 lb  67.19
- 2
- 1
–2
- 1
1.59 x 10
kilogram per hectare, kg ha
bushel per acre, 56 lb  62.71
1.86 x 10
kilogram per hectare, kg ha
bushel per acre, 48 lb  53.75
–2
- 1
0.107  liter per hectare, L ha
gallon per acre  9.35
- 1
893  tonne per hectare, t ha
pound per acre, lb
1.12 x10
- 1
- 3
acre
- 1
893  megagram per hectare, Mg ha
pound per acre, lb
1.12 x10
- 1
- 3
acre
- 1
0.446  mega gram per hectare, Mg ha
ton (2000 lb) acre
2.24
- 1
- 1
2.24  meter per second, m s
mile per hour  0.447
- 1
62
  
Specific Surface
10  square meter per kilogram, m  kg
square centimeter per
0.1
2 - 1
gram,
cm  g
2 - 1
1000  square meter per kilogram, m
kg
square millimeter per
0.001
2
- 1
gram, mm
g
2
- 1
Pressure
9.90  mega pascal, MPa (10
Pa)  atmosphere  0.101
6
10  mega pascal, MPa (10
Pa)  bar  0.1
6
1.00  mega gram per cubic meter, Mg m
gram
per cubic
1.00
-
centime
ter, g cm
3
- 3
2.09 x 10
Pascal, Pa  pound per s
quare foot,
47.9
–2
lb ft
- 2
1.45 x 10
Pascal, Pa  pound per
square
6.90
x 10
–4
3
inch, lb in
- 2
Temperature
1.0(K–273)
kelvin, K  Celsiu 1.00(°C+27
s, °C
3)
(9/5°C)+ 32
Celsius, °C  Fahrenheit, °F  5/9(°F
- 32)
Energy, Work, Quantity  t
of hea
9.52 x 10
Joule, J  British thermal
unit,
1.05 x 10
- 4
3
0.239  Joule, J  calorie, cal  4.19
Btu
10  Joule, J  erg  10
7
- 7
0.735 Joule, J  foot-pound  1.36
2.387 x 10   meter, J m
Joule per square  calorie per
square
4.19 x 10
- 5
- 2
4
centimeter (Lan
gley)
10
Newton, N  dyne  10
5
- 5
1.43 x 10
Watt per square meter, W m
uare
calorie per sq
698
- 3
- 2
centime ter
minute
(irradian
ce), c
al cm
- 2
min
- 1
Transpiration and Photosynthesis
3.60 x 10
square meter
milligram per
gram per
square
27.8
- 2
second, mg m
s
decimeter hour
, g dm
- 2
- 1
- 2
h
- 1
5.56 x 10
milligram (H
O) p
er square meter
micromole (H
O
) per
180
- 3
2
2
second, mg m
s
square
centi
meter
- 2
- 1
- 2
- 1
second, µmol cm
s
10
milligram per square meter
milligram per s
q
uare
10
- 4
4
second, mg m  s
centimeter se
cond
, mg
- 2 - 1
cm
s
- 2
- 1
35.97  milligram per square m
eter
milligram per sq
uare  x 10
2.78
- 2
second, mg m  s
decimeter hour, mg
- 2 - 1
dm
h
- 2
- 1
Plane Angle
57.3  radian, rad  degrees (angle), °  1.75 x 10
- 2
Electrical Conductivity, Electricity, and Magnetism
10  siemen per meter, S m
millimho per
0.1
- 1
centimeter, mmho cm
-
10
tesla, T  gauss, G  10
4
1
- 4
Water Measurement
9.73 x 10
cubic meter, m
acre-inch, acre-in 102.8
- 3
3
9.81 x 10
cubic meter per hour, m
h
oot per second,  101.9
cubic f
- 3
3
- 1
63
  
ft
s
3
- 1
4.40  cubic meter per hour, m  h   lon per minute,  0.227
US gal
3 - 1
gal min
- 1
8.11  hectare meter, ha m acre-foot, acre-ft 0.123
97.28  hectare meter, ha m  acre-inch, acre-in  1.03 x 10
- 2
8.1 x 10
hectare centimeter, ha cm  acre-foot, acre-ft  12.3
3
- 2
Concentration
1  Centimol per kilogram, cmol kg
milliequivalent per
1
- 1
100 grams, me
100 g
- 1
0.1  gram per kilogram, g kg
per cent, %  10
- 1
1  milligram per kilogram, mg kg
lion, ppm
parts per mil 1
- 1
Radioactivity
2.7 x 10
becquerel, Bq  curie, Ci  3.7 x 10
- 1 1
10
2.7 x 10
cquerel per kilogram, Bq kg   m, 37
be
picocurie per gra
- 2
- 1
pCi g
- 1
100  gray, Gy (absorbed dose)  rad, rd  0.01
100  sievert, Sv (equivalent dose)  (roentgen  0.01
rem
equivalent man)
Plant Nutrient Conversion
Elemental Oxide
2.29 P  P
O
0.437
2
5
1.20 K  K O 0.830
2
1.39 Ca  CaO  0.715
1.66 Mg
MgO
0.602
64
  
CORIGENDUM
Page Line  rinted
P Correct
05 15
under References  give  Given
th
23 27 under Introduction  lead  Led
37 09
Anim.  Anim
al
42 02
L.)
L.)
39 21  comprises of  Comprises
51 39  .
Anim Animal
51 40  Anim.  mal
Ani
52 04  Pl.  t
Plan
52 11
Anim.  Ani
mal
53 41  Anim.  Animal
56 41  Anim.  Animal
56 43  Pl.  Plant
58 44  P Plant
l.
59 17  Zoology  Zool.
59 29  mh.  th.
Photosy Photosyn
59 31  im.  Animal
An
61 17  .
Anim Animal
61 31
Anim.  An
imal
62 1
column   Column
heading olumn
st
62 4
under volume  bushel, but  bushel, bu
th
62 2
under Mass  avid  avdp
nd
62 6
under Mass  tone  tonne
th
63 1
& 2
under Pressure   Mpa  MPa
st
nd
63 3
under Pressure  mega grams  mega gram
rd
63 3
under energy ---  Erg  erg
rd
64 1
under Concentration  centimol  centimol
st
Units after the name of a scientist with first letter in upper or lower case is
acceptable in SI system but abbr eviation always starts with upper case letter.
However, the first letter in upper case for unit name may be preferred.
65


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